International Education Research International Education Research (IER) is an international, peer-reviewed, open-access journal. The IER aims to publish research articles that address issues, challenges and innovations of contemporary concern in all aspects of education. This journal is published quarterly by the Science and Education Centre of North America in both print and online versions. The online version is free to access and download. International Education Research seeks to publish original research papers, case reports, and review articles. It reports on developments in the field of education (primary, secondary, tertiary, and life-long) and its scope embraces all fields of education and training. The Correlation between Professional Development and Teacher's Self-Efficacy The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between professional development of the teaching staff in schools using training courses, and teacher self-efficacy. This study was conducted using the qualitative method, with 144 questionnaires given to teachers in training courses in the Pisgah Centers (Development of Teaching Staff Centers) in Israel, where the questionnaires examined the length of the training, the teacher's self-efficacy, and their standpoint regarding the professional development program. Results of the research show a distinct positive correlation between most of the teacher's standpoints and most of their feelings of self-efficacy. Thus the standpoint of the teachers on the subject of effective teaching methods of the organization predicted the feeling of self-efficacy in the objective, relationships and organizational factors. In addition, the teacher's standpoint on the subject of environment predicted the feeling of self-efficacy in the objective factor and the teacher's standpoint on the subject of ICT predicted the feeling of self-efficacy in both the objective and relationship factors. Furthermore, a definitive correlation was found between the length of the training course and the feeling of self-efficacy amongst the teachers in both the objective and organizational factors. Volume 5, Issue 1, 2017 Examining the Factors Impacting Academics’ Psychological Well-Being: A Review of Research Existing research suggests that academics are subjected to high levels of job-related stress. Numerous aspects of an academic career such as time constraint, work overload, work-life conflict, and emotional demands are stressful and trigger negative emotional responses. There is further evidence to suggest that job-related stress compromises physical and psychological well-being, and impairs productivity among academics. The purpose of the present paper was to review the empirical research on how work-related stress and experiences impact academics’ psychological well-being. Accordingly, a thorough review of the literature was conducted and 46 studies attending to aspects of psychological well-being were identified and analyzed. The literature was found to be fragmented. The review concludes that job-related stress and specific types of experiences adversely impact academics’ psychological well-being by making them vulnerable to psychological distress, negative emotions, depression, and burnout. Implications for improving psychological well-being among academics are addressed and directions for future research are proposed. Volume 5, Issue 1, 2017 Investigating Meaningful Happiness and Wellbeing in College Students through a ‘Curriculum of Giving’ Outdoor Education Program As part of a two-week outdoor education expedition, 18 high school and college students (11 males and 7 females) were engaged in evidence-based wellbeing activities, such as journaling, three new gratitudes, and meditation. Using a mixed methods approach, the aim was to investigate the impact of these activities - conceptualised as a 'curriculum of giving.' Wellbeing was measured qualitatively via interviews and journals, and quantitatively using the Flourishing Scale (FS) across four time points. Qualitative data showed that the wellbeing activities facilitated students’ connection and gratitude towards nature, promoted self-reflection, and a shift in values and worldviews toward social concern. Together with the quantitative data which showed a statistically significant increase in FS scores from pre-trip to post-trip, the results of this in-depth case study support the growing body of literature showing that forms of altruism performed regularly are beneficial to wellbeing and meaningful happiness. Volume 4, Issue 2, 2016 Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Intellectual Disabilities Learning to read affords individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) a means to function in a literate society. However, one of the most overwhelming challenges for children with ID to accomplish is learning how to read independently. In this study a three-step decoding strategy was used with a constant time delay procedure to teach word reading to children with ID using a phonics-based curriculum. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design with two intervention phases was used to examine the percentage of letter-sounds correctly decoded and the percentage of words read correctly. The findings indicated that all the children learned to read words using the three-step decoding strategy and constant time delay procedure. It was also noted that across all children letter-sound decoding accuracy outpaced word reading accuracy. Although each child made gains in reading words, these gains were not sufficient to infer generalization. These results suggest that the decoding strategy and time delay procedure may be effective at instructing children with ID who are having a difficult time blending sounds together to read word, but additional supports are warranted. Volume 4, Issue 2, 2016 The Impact of ICT on the Professional Role of the Teacher from the Viewpoint of the Principal and Administrative Staff The purpose of this study is to investigate whether changes have occurred in the teacher's professional pedagogical role as a result of the implementation of ICT in the schools, from the point of view of the principal and administrative staff of the school. The study was conducted in Israel, using the qualitative method and included eight semi-structured in-depth interviews with the administrative staff of elementary schools: the principal, the assistant principal, the computer coordinator, the grade coordinator and the teacher. The research findings suggest that the program does influence the teacher in a number of aspects: the teacher is required to rethink his teaching methods and increase his team work with his work staff and colleagues. In addition, the results highlight the need for the teacher's continued professional development in the field of computerization. Volume 4, Issue 2, 2016 Arab and Jewish Students Creating Identity Drawing Map (IDM) of Peace and Coexistence During the last decade we conducted a set of studies following our methodology developed for the analysis of drawings to assess identity. We gathered interviews and asked for Identity Drawing Maps IDM from 184 students aged 20-30 years. This study is based on qualitative analysis of eight IDMs representing the main groups in the Israeli society: Arabs; Christian, Muslim, Druze and Jews (2 maps for each group). We aim to examine the way in which students from different background use hyphenated identities and express messages of peace and co-existence. The findings give some hope that despite the ongoing conflict, Students from different cultural, national and religious backgrounds wish to live in pluralistic society that respects all the members and encourages values of equality, partnership and co-existence. Volume 4, Issue 1, 2016 The Role of Calibration Bias and Performance Feedback in Achievement Goal Regulation Do achievement goals change across time in response to performance feedback? Does goal orientation relate to calibration of estimated to actual achievement? We studied these issues over three tasks spanning a semester-long course where ninety-nine undergraduates received feedback about performance on each task. Learners were consistently and quite substantially biased in estimating performance with bias inversely related to actual performance. Goal orientation was not stable across time as a function of task, and it varied in some tasks in relation to calibration accuracy. These findings demonstrate goal orientations are sensitive to task and feedback. Moreover, goal orientation had varying and sometimes no relation to achievement, with calibration bias mediating most of the relations. In an authentic setting where learners experience multiple tasks over time, it is important to consider individuals’ calibration bias for performance on specific tasks. Calibration bias may be a key factor in learners’ regulation of achievement goals. Volume 4, Issue 1, 2016 Exploring Relations between Teachers' Beliefs, Instructional Practices, and Students' Beliefs in Statistics We examined the epistemic climate of statistics classrooms across two different classrooms by measuring teachers’ espoused beliefs about teaching statistics and observing their teaching practices. We then explored whether students’ beliefs became more aligned with the epistemic climate of the classroom over time. Post-secondary students’ beliefs were measured at the beginning and end of the semester. To measure the epistemic climate, teachers completed self-reports of their beliefs about teaching and learning, and participated in two semi-structured interviews at the beginning and end of the semester. Moreover, several classroom observations were conducted over the course of the semester. Analyses of the data revealed that for one group of students in one class, their beliefs were well aligned with the classroom climate and remained stable over time whereas for the other group of students, their beliefs shifted over time to align with the classroom climate. Volume 4, Issue 1, 2016 Children with Reading Disabilities and Outdoor Education This study explore if children with reading disabilities have differences in experiences and show different behaviors during indoor school and outdoor education in Norway. In the first study children with reading disabilities are compared with the rest of the classes in how they report wellbeing in different school settings. Thirty children participated in this study. In the second study the answers from the six children with various degrees of reading disabilities were analyzed further, and qualitative observations of their behavior, both indoor and outdoor, were analyzed. The studies reveal that outdoor education can reduce the amount of unpleasant elevated arousal. Unpleasant elevated arousal can lead to internalized and externalized problem behavior for the group of children with reading disabilities. Volume 3, Issue 4, 2015 How Schools with Good Academic Results Justify Their Use of Outdoor Education In this study, we focus on how teachers and headmasters in Norwegian schools achieving good results on national tests justify the use of outdoor education; a practice often considered time-consuming and less effective than traditional classroom education. The research strategy used in the study is case studies. The cases are three schools with good academic results. The study is based on seven semi-structured interviews with teachers and headmasters from the three schools. The interviews were analyzed in a comparative analysis process, aiming to develop appropriate categories descriptive of the argumentation for outdoor education. The results show that the emphasis on academic outcome is strong, but schools using outdoor education regularly have a broader justification. They recognize outdoor education as a tool that helps create a holistic learning environment. Variation, motivation and social skills are important elements contributing to the child’s holistic learning. Using the statements from teachers as a guide, we introduce “The Flower of Outdoor Education”. Volume 3, Issue 4, 2015 Examining Faculty Motivations for Engagement in Service-Learning at a Faith-Based Institution: A Comparison of Service-Learning Faculty versus Non-Service-Learning Faculty Faculty in a faith-based university were examined on motivations and deterrents for engagement in service-learning. Service-learning and non-service-learning faculty were compared based on rank, gender, discipline, and denominational affiliation. Findings suggest motivations and deterrents for faculty engaging in service learning in faith-based universities are similar to those faced by faculty in non-faith-based universities. Although no specific faith-based deterrents emerged from the study, unique faith motivating factors were identified. Volume 3, Issue 3, 2015 Social and Behavioral Problems in an Urban At-Risk Preschool Population Early identification of children who display elevated rates of interpersonal and behavioral problems is vital for the initiation of early intervention services. Teaching students social-emotional skills is an important goal of preschool programs, including Head Start programs, across the United States. In order to better understand the rates of interpersonal and behavioral delays demonstrated by preschool students participating in an urban Head Start program, as well as any demographic-based risk factors that may predict these problems, 1,399 (86% Black/African American) students were administered the Preschool and Kindergarten Behaviors Scales – 2nd edition (PKBS-2). Results indicate that gender is significantly associated with both social and behavioral challenges. Specifically, in comparison to girls, boys tend to be less socially adept and more likely to display troublesome behaviors. Suggestions for future research, such as longitudinal studies, are included. Volume 3, Issue 3, 2015 Innovative Teacher’s Perceptions of Their Development When Creating Learner-Centered Classrooms with Ubiquitous Computing Though many USA schools embrace ubiquitous computing, few teachers reach a pedagogical developmental stage that makes the most effective use of technology for learning. In order to better understand the advanced stage of pedagogical development, this research gathers the perceptions of seven innovative – advanced teachers, from four different schools in order to report on their change processes. All participants once taught in traditional classrooms and now create learner-centered classrooms with ubiquitous computing. The results are based on interviews in a comparative case study framework. Despite teaching in various contexts, results revealed that teachers had common experiences. Qualitative themes were based on combining three common developmental change theories. The “entry” stage was heavily influenced by dissatisfaction of societal needs and past ineffective teachers. In later stages, teachers developed strong beliefs coupled with student observations and project creation techniques, and they overcame obstacles of fear through collegial collaboration, furthering their continuous growth. As innovators, teachers’ current concerns focused on how to deepen student learning with meaningful experiences so that technology was worth the cost of time and effort. Teachers’ experiences suggest concepts for further exploration in research and professional development. Volume 3, Issue 3, 2015 In their Own Words: Using First-Year Teacher Blogs to Prepare Preservice Educators Teacher-preparation programs strive to bridge the gap between theory and practice, and to prepare preservice teachers for the challenges and realities of the classroom. As budgets tighten and the alternative and online preparation of teachers becomes more common, field experiences in classrooms are increasingly limited. Creatively bridging the gap between theory and practice using teacher-created blogs provides preservice teachers the opportunity to gain insight into the challenges and life of teachers as well as the chance to reflect and make connections between coursework and their future profession. Although preservice teachers are often required to create blogs, little attention has been given the use of teacher blogs as a part of course readings and discussions, or as a supplement or replacement for field experiences. The purpose of the present study was to first explore the impact first-year teacher blogs had on pre-service teacher perceptions of the classroom, and then to determine if reading, analyzing and reflecting on the blogs impact how students perceive the applicability and utility of course content. Participants were 58 undergraduate preservice teachers seeking initial certification and enrolled in an educational psychology course at the regional campus of a public midwestern university in the United States. Results indicated that the teacher-created blogs impacted preservice teacher reflection and refinement of the realities of the classroom, and that reading teacher accounts via blogs facilitated realistic expectations of the challenges facing novice teachers. The finding may prove useful in that utilizing blogs may be helpful in situations when courses are on-line, or do not include the recommended opportunity for practical classroom interaction (Cheng & Tang, 2008). Volume 3, Issue 2, 2015 Help-Seeking Behaviours of Brunei Lower Secondary School Students: Engagements with the Self, Parents, Peers and Teachers The survey looked at how 171 randomly selected Brunei lower secondary school students (140 females) were engaged academically with the self, peers, parents and teachers in the context of the ongoing inclusive education and SPN21 curriculum reforms. Data were collected using the Research Assessment Package for Schools – Students in Middle schools version, RAPS-SM (Institute for Research and Reform in Education [IRRE], 1998). In general, both genders and students in the two participating schools expressed satisfaction with their engagements with the selected stakeholders and scored in the expected positive direction on most items and sections of the instrument. However, there were a few exceptions. Females and students in the girls’ school scored significantly higher on the emotional security with the self-variable while participants in the mixed-gender school outperformed those in the other type of school on the teacher emotional security section of the instrument. In addition, females and students in the girls’ school scored much higher than other peers on the parent autonomy support variables. Furthermore, males scored higher on the teacher involvement and teacher autonomy support items. Moreover, students in the co-education school scored higher on some items of the teacher involvement, teacher autonomy support and teacher structure variables. Overall, these findings call for appropriate educational and counselling interventions to be provided. Mixed-methods research involving a bigger number of schools was recommended to provide more insights. Volume 3, Issue 2, 2015 School Environment Factors as Predictors for Teachers' Teaching Efficacy, Teacher Stress and Job Satisfaction The purpose of this study is identify how teachers’ perceptions of school environment factors, and the extent to which these predict outcome variables - teaching efficacy, job satisfaction and teacher stress. It also investigates if teaching efficacy affects job satisfaction, and teacher stress impacts teaching efficacy and job satisfaction. The sample included 387 Vietnamese junior high school teachers. Participants completed one questionnaire for four sections about school environment, teaching efficacy, teacher stress, and job satisfaction. The results obtained from statistical analyses show that teachers had highly favourable and positive perceptions of school environment, teaching efficacy, job satisfaction, and highly negative stress. The results obtained from multiple regression analyses also indicated that the factors of school environment as the predictors for teachers’ teaching efficacy, teacher stress and job satisfaction. Of the seven school environment factors investigated, teachers’ perception of principal leadership, mission consensus, professional interest, affiliation and student support had the most powerful effect on outcome variables. Among the outcome variables, sense of teaching efficacy positively related to job satisfaction, while both types of teacher stress negatively related to job satisfaction and teaching efficacy. The findings of the present study have educational implications. Volume 3, Issue 2, 2015 Using Task-Based Instruction to Foster Clear Communications on Chinese Ocean-Going Vessels English as a working language is very important on ocean-going vessels, and poor communication is one of the causes of major disasters. In order to foster the students’ communicative competence, we applied task-based instruction theory into the design of English for Specific Purpose (ESP) instruction, shifting our instruction from teacher-centered to learner-centered. This paper explored the principles and procedures in task-based language teaching and applied them to ESP learning, especially in Marine Engineering English classrooms in a Chinese vocational institute. Volume 3, Issue 2, 2015 The Implementation of Change in a Teacher Training College and Its Impact on the Academic Environment The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of setting up a care and support center for students with learning disabilities (Matot Center) in a teacher training college, its influence on the institution itself and how this change would affect the different levels within the college. The study, conducted at a teacher training college in the center of Israel was a three-year longitudinal study from 2011 to 2013 that combined quantitative and qualitative research. The quantitative research tools included attitude questionnaires of teachers and students participating in the program. The qualitative research tools included semi-structured interviews with students and mentors at the Matot Center, and a content analysis of documents and the minutes of the Center’s Steering Committee meetings. The findings of the study indicate that following the establishment of the Support Center in the college, changes took place at several levels: administrative and academic changes; changes in the lecturers’ attitudes regarding the purpose of the Matot Center; changes in the college’s mentoring project; and changes in the level of satisfaction among students at the Center with how the center operates and the extent of its contribution to them. Volume 3, Issue 1, 2015 Rational Thought, Cognition and Knowledge An exposition on how the brain works as theoretical application of the grand unified theory (GUT), this paper applies the new methodology of qualitative mathematics and modeling to trace the signals from the external world through the sense organs where they are encoded on brain waves and transmitted through the nerves to a primitive nodal region in the creative-integrative region (CIR) of the cortex. They form a tree of activated (vibrated) neural chains via resonance that triggers sensation and models a concept (cognition) there even after the signals from an event has stopped coming. The concept is defined by the vibration characteristics of the tree and its components. When thought leaves its focus on it, the tree reverts back to its normal vibration and transfers its components to their respective sensation regions for storage as memory in due course. Then the paper discusses recollection of concepts for use in thought and construction of knowledge and its application to wellness. Volume 3, Issue 1, 2015 Group Dynamic Concepts in Social Studies as Correlates of Moral Values and National Unity in Nigeria Nigeria is a multilingual and multicultural nation which is characterized by ethno-religious crises and insurgencies. The introduction of an active approach to teaching would ensure effective education and socialization for transformation in Nigeria. Effective teaching of group dynamic concepts (GDC) is relevant because of the diversity of students in our schools today. GDC are selected themes which could be used to help students from diverse racial, cultural, ethnic and language groups to experience unity through academic success. While academic knowledge and skills are essential, students must also develop positive attitude and skills necessary to interact positively in our diverse nation. This study, therefore, examined group dynamism as correlate of moral values and national unity in Ogun state, Nigeria. Two null hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a quasi experimental design. A 30 item achievement test was administered on 150 junior secondary school (JSS) students randomly selected from five secondary schools in the south-west region of Nigeria. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Pearson product moment correlation and Scheffe Post hoc tests were used to determine the source of significant main effect where observed. The findings of this study revealed that effective teaching of GDC could help to inculcate the desired moral values in students and this could translate into national unity in and beyond Nigeria. Volume 3, Issue 1, 2015 Bringing Evidence to the Classroom: Exploring Educator Notions of Evidence and Preferences for Practice Change Successful implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in schools requires an understanding of the factors influencing implementation and adoption. We conducted eight focus groups with school administrators and teachers to explore their views about EBP and the factors influencing EBP use within the school context. Educators believed EBP to mean one of three things: information that is supported by research evidence, by evidence of student performance, or evidence-by-proxy. We identified several factors influencing educator use of EBPs and intention to change practice: a school culture of openness and buy-in for EBP, relevance of EBP to student needs universally, and organizational support for implementation, were catalysts for motivating educators to change their practice. Understanding the practice change preferences of educators is important for effective EBP implementation in schools. Educators have a unique perspective of what constitutes EBP, and they can identify what they need in order to change practice. Volume 2, Issue 4, 2014 Flipped Classroom and Traditional Classroom: Lecturer and Student Perceptions between Two Learning Cultures, a Case Study at Malaysian Polytechnic Malaysian Polytechnic is moving towards the use of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) to meet the needs of the Outcome Based Education (OBE) system that has been implemented since 2010. However, the lack of resources, internet access and lecturer skills in developing their instruction has caused the “chalk and talk” learning culture to remain unchanged, especially in accounting courses. The purpose of this study is to determine the lecturer and students' perception and their achievement between two learning cultures, the traditional classroom and flipped classroom. This study has been conducted between two classes; 61 final diploma accountancy students and a lecturer. Questionnaires and interview was conducted and analyze using independent sample t test. The findings show that there is a significant difference in perception (t(59) = -3.71, p < .05), mean students in a traditional classroom significantly different (M = 4.42, SD = .38) than in a flipped classroom (M = 4.07, SD = .37). The mean also shows, students from both classes had similar perceptions on their learning culture. The percentage of students pass their assessments for the flipped classroom, quiz=26%, test=52%, higher than traditional classroom, quiz=17%, test=50%. It was found that the lecturer had more time to spend on problem solving in the flipped class compared with the traditional class, and although it suffers from a lack of facilities, the flipped class can still be implemented. Therefore, Malaysian Polytechnic institutions could think more globally by teaching locals to meet students' needs of learning with appropriate learning approaches. Volume 2, Issue 4, 2014 A Subjective Academic Narrative Reviewing Academic Collegiality This paper is based upon a conceptual approach to making a scholarly addition to the privileged academic discourse. This paper develops the methodology of a subjective academic narrative to address the issue of academic collegiality that is being explored. This methodology involves a journey of intellectual enquiry into the work of the self as data. This subjective academic narrative is a response to the research question: ‘in today’s world of the subjective self and online interactions is collegiality possible or even desirable?’. The conceptual approach of this paper involves constructing a personal narrative arising from experience and reviewing academic literature regarding the possibly inherent discordance between collegiality and personal career development. The core business of the university may well be teaching undergraduate students, as this brings in the most sure and significant income, but if you want to get up the academic scale, you must also excel at the various demands of the promotions regulations. These involve proof of collegiality as well as personal aspects of teaching and learning, research, and management of courses, people and discipline areas. This paper explores whether or not such interactions are possible. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2014 Turning to Teaching: Second Career Student Teachers' Intentions, Motivations, and Perceptions about the Teaching Profession In light of predicted teacher shortages, many countries including Israel have initiated Master of Teaching programs targeting second career candidates. Their unique profile aroused our interest in examining their motives for turning to teaching and their beliefs about teachers and the teaching profession. Findings show the dominance of an altruistic motive followed by intrinsic and extrinsic ones. Candidates adhere to a middle position between viewing teaching as a technical-rational activity and a reflective practice and view "good" teachers as having a mixture of adequate personality traits, positive human relations and professional performance with an emphasis on personality traits. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2014 Professors' Perceived Barriers and Incentives for Teaching Improvement Continuous engagement in teaching improvement is required if professors are to gain the essential knowledge base for effective teaching in ever changing contexts. However, research suggests that professors are not always willing to engage in teaching improvement activities and thus may employ less effective teaching methods that can, in turn, negatively impact student learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate which factors professors perceived as being hindering or motivating to engage in teaching improvement activities. Data were collected from 146 professors from a Canadian research-intensive university. Participants responded to two open-ended questions comprising a subset of a larger survey on engagement in teaching improvement. Specifically, the questions elicited professors’ perceived barriers and incentives for teaching improvement. Lack of time and a university culture that was not conducive to teaching were identified as the most significant barriers. Greater recognition for teaching and creating a reward system for excellence in teaching were highlighted as the most desirable incentives. Moreover, a comparison was made between tenured and non-tenured participants with respect to perceptions of incentives and barriers. A university culture that is not conducive to teaching was perceived as more hindering for teaching improvement for non-tenured professors. Findings are insightful for stakeholders, in particular educational developers and policy makers to develop and implement strategies to remove barriers and reinforce motivating factors for teaching development. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2014 Theory-of-Mind Development in Brazilian Low-Income Children Despite all advances of theory-of-mind research in recent years, our current understanding of this phenomenon in children from different socioeconomic backgrounds living in developing countries is still limited. The present study aimed to investigate the developmental pattern toward theory-of-mind in 121 Brazilian preschool children (3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) from low SES working-class families. Participants were administered three tasks assessing different aspects of theory of mind: adapted versions of a verbal and a non-verbal false belief tasks, the Luria hand-game, and the Deceptive Box game. Children from all three-age groups succeeded in the test of inhibitory control (the Luria hand-game). In the unexpected false belief task, the majority of 4-year-old children (65.9 %) passed the non-verbal test and the second verbal test (72.7%); however, in the Deceptive box task, only half of 5-year-old children gave correct responses to both types of question (52.8% to self- and 50% to other-attribution questions). These results suggest a possible difference in the developmental sequence toward theory-of-mind in Brazilian low-income children that needs to be further investigated. Future cross-cultural studies should be particularly attentive to the characteristics of children’s family environments, in particular, family context and functioning when investigating social cognitive development in poor children. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2014 Impact of Journalism Educators on Media Performance and Journalism Practice in Taiwan This study examines the role of journalism educators in Taiwan in shaping their students’ views of the profession, and the extent to which the ethics and values taught at university are practiced in the newsroom. Interviews were conducted with educators and journalism graduates from National Chengchi University, a public institution recognized as setting the standard for journalism education in the country, and Nanhua University, a private institution. The study indicates that an individual educator’s attitudes and opinions on concepts such as public service, news value, and news ethics have an impact on the views of students, although business and political pressures, as well as Taiwan’s highly competitive media market, may compromise journalistic values and ethics. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2014 Who Gets In and Why? An Examination of Admissions to America’s Most Selective Colleges and Universities This study advances our understanding of admissions practices at selective colleges and universities in the United States. An usually high survey response rate (82%, n=63) and in-depth interviews capture more selective institutions of higher education than prior research. Moreover, this study’s mixed-methods approach makes it the most comprehensive analysis of elite admissions practices to date. Findings reveal that elite institutions commonly group applicants into “pools” and that applications are compared within, but not across, pools. Certain pools receive preference, largely as a result of the perceived benefits of a particular applicant’s background, academic characteristics, and exceptional talents, and their relationship with a university’s needs. Other findings suggest that institutional “fit” is often more important than academic merit, that the rigor of high school courses is the most important indicator in determining an applicant’s merit, and that money remains a tie-breaker. Volume 2, Issue 2, 2014 Adaptive Cognitive Training Enhances Executive Control and Visuospatial and Verbal Working Memory in Beginning Readers In this study we examined whether children’s working memory could be enhanced by adaptive cognitive training (ACT) and whether training outcomes would relate to behavioral self-regulation, a measure of executive control (EC) and certain pre-reading outcomes (phoneme awareness and letter knowledge). Children from economically disadvantaged communities were randomly assigned to an ACT (n = 23) or a wait-list control (n = 27) group. ACT consisted of an average of 20 minutes per day of adaptive visuospatial working memory training (Cogmed-JM) for up to 25 days at the beginning of the school year. ACT significantly improved performance in near-transfer (untrained visuospatial test) and far-transfer (tests of verbal working memory and behavioral self-regulation). However, ACT had no direct effects on either measure of pre-reading skill. Our findings suggest that ACT may indirectly help children at risk for later reading problems to benefit from instruction opportunities by developing self-regulation and memory skills. Volume 2, Issue 2, 2014 Changing Institutional Research Productivity of United States’ Science Education Programs: 2000s v. 1990s The purpose of this study was to identify the major science education programs in the United States, where the science education researchers published their research during the first decade of the twenty-first century. This research study of the scholarly productivity of science education programs at United States’ institutions of higher education is compared with the last decade of 1990s (Barrow, Settlage, & Germann, 2008). Each issue of the eight research journals (Journal of Research is Science Teaching, Science Education, International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Science Teacher Education, School Science and Mathematics, Journal of Computers in Math and Science Teaching, Journal of Science Education and Technology, and Journal of Elementary Science Education) published in the 2000s provided the author(s) and their institutional affiliation. The resultant ranking of raw and weighted counts for the top 30 U.S science educations programs shows variation in journals where research was published. There were almost 50% of the 2000s top 30 institutions which were not listed for the 1990s. Potential explanations for variations and uses for ranking are discussed. Volume 2, Issue 2, 2014 Mentoring as a Means for Transforming Mentor-Teachers' Practical Knowledge: A Case Study from Greece The purpose of this research article is to reveal hidden possibilities about how mentor-teachers’ professional development through the transformation of their practical knowledge could occur into a mentoring context enhancing the role of schoolteachers as mentors. Drawing on Transformative Learning Theory literature, the study explores how five secondary teachers, involved in a mentoring program with such an orientation, come to transform or negotiate their previous conceptions of teaching, learning, and teacher’s role. The results of the qualitative data analysis reveal the transformative potential of this specific mentoring situation as well as the four types of interwoven mentoring experiences influencing the mentors’ knowledge transformation processes: innovative ideas/practices student-teachers enact in classrooms, questions on “how” and “why” of mentors’ teachings, creation of an informal mentors’ learning community, and the presence among them of a colleague having already developed a reflection-stance. The article’s contribution lies in highlighting new aspects of meaningful mentoring experiences fostering mentors’ knowledge transformation and development. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2014 What were They Thinking? Using Cognitive Interviewing to Examine the Validity of Self-Reported Epistemic Beliefs We employed cognitive interviewing with a sample of secondary, college, undergraduate and graduate students to examine the cognitive validity of a popular epistemic beliefs self-report measure, the Discipline-Focused Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire [DFEBQ] (Hofer, 2000). In addition, we examined cognitive validity across two domains. Analyses of interviews revealed that cognitive validity was good, wherein students’ responses were typically within an expected range of interpretations. However, students’ interpretations of items were not always consistent with researchers’ intended meanings, interpretations sometimes differed across domains, and that the response option “3” as a neutral response was not always used as intended. To improve validity of self-report measures of epistemic beliefs more generally, we recommend that explicit anchors are used, such as “mathematician” instead of “expert,” and that definitions of the dimensions are presented to respondents to ensure interpretations align with researchers’ intended meanings. We end with broader methodological implications. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2014 Improving Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes towards Individuals with Mental Illness through an Introduction to Special Education Course Mental illness in children and adults continues to be a controversial and misunderstood topic. Previous research has examined different populations' attitudes toward mental illness, and efforts to change community attitudes toward individuals with mental illness have included contact with the mentally ill and education programs. However, little research has examined teachers’ attitudes toward the mentally ill, nor programs for positively impacting those beliefs. The purpose of the present study was to first assess preservice teachers’ beliefs toward individuals with mental illness and to determine if the completion of an undergraduate Introduction to Special Education course could positively impact their attitudes toward individuals with mental illness. Participants included students attending three different institutions of higher education who were divided into three groups: general education majors, special education majors, and education minors. Results indicated that significant differences were obtained for all institutions and groups among their pre-test and post-test scores on the Community Attitudes Toward the Mentally Ill scale (CAMI). Implications for practice and future research are presented. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2014 Principals and Teachers' perceptions of School-Based Management The study aims to examine the perceptions of a sample of Hong Kong principals and teachers of the extent to which school-based management (SBM) has been effectively implemented in primary schools. More specifically, the purpose of this study is to investigate the following research questions, as perceived by principals and teachers: (1) Which features of SBM are being implemented in Hong Kong primary schools; (2) To what exten are they being implemented? (3) What is the difference between the perceptions of teachers and principals towards SBM? The features of school-based management implemented in Hong Kong primary schools include (1) leadership competence and work relationships, (2) staff coordination and effectiveness, (3) financial planning and control, and (4) resources and accommodation. A quantitative, survey questionnaire was adopted in this study. A total of 322 respondents (83 principals and 239 teachers) out of 83 primary schools responded to the questionnaire. The means, standard deviation and t-test were used to analyze the results. The finding shows that all four features of school-based management are perceived as being implemented in Hong Kong primary schools, but the degree of their implementation is not the same. The most adopted elements of school-based management are ‘financial planning and control’ and ‘leadership competence and work relationships’. The moderate adopted element is ‘resources and accommodation’. The least adopted element is’staff coordination and effectiveness’. In addition, there are significant differences between the perceptions of principals and teachers towards the areas of SBM. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2014 Mentoring and Faculty-Student Interaction in an Online Doctoral Program This study analyzed one overarching research question: What effect does faculty-student interaction have on the relationship between student mentoring and student success in an online doctoral program. Both Cohen’s (1993) Principles of Adult Mentoring Scale and Grooms and Bocarnea’s (2003) Computer-Mediated Interaction Scale were modified and consolidated into one instrument to measure learners’ perceptions of mentoring and faculty-student interaction. Student success was operationalized as grade point average and passing comprehensive examinations on the first attempt, two critical benchmarks of doctoral program completion. While the data from this study did not support that faculty-student interaction moderated the relationship between student mentoring and student success, it did generate a plethora of questions. It also suggested the possibility that the online educational environment transmutes the traditional mentoring functions proposing the probable need for a revised instrument that will adequately measure these variables within the 21st century technologically-rich context. Volume 1, Issue 4, 2013 Quality Management in Primary Schools The Hong Kong government focused its education policy on improving the quality of education. Meanwhile, the features of quality management improvement implemented in Hong Kong primary schools include ‘values and duties’, ‘systems and teams’, ‘resources and changes’, and ‘meeting pupil needs and empowering staff’. The purposes of this study are to examine the relationships among ‘values and duties’, ‘systems and teams’, ‘resources and changes’, and ‘meeting pupil needs and empowering staff’. A quantitative, survey questionnaire was adopted in this study. A total of 322 respondents out of 83 primary schools responded to the questionnaire. The correlation and structural equation modeling were used to analyse the data. The finding shows that there are relationships among ‘values and duties’, ‘systems and teams’, ‘resources and changes’, and ‘meeting pupil needs and empowering staff’. The implications of the study are discussed finally. Volume 1, Issue 4, 2013 Teachers' Perception of the Library Automation: A Case Study of a Malaysian Resource Center Automation is an essential technology today. It is crucial that school library changes its role and upgrades it to comply with the new demands of new information programmes. Singh (1996) emphasized for library to change its role because school libraries today are no longer the traditional reading rooms and study halls; they are evolving to become facilitators in information services and gateways to the wider information world. This study aims to investigate teachers’ motivation level on the automation system among the teacher-librarians as well as examine perceived usefulness of automation system among the teacher-librarians. The study found that the automation system has captured the teacher-librarians attention on using this system in their school resource center and has ultimately led to increased user satisfaction. Volume 1, Issue 4, 2013 The Impact of Form-Focused-Instruction (FFI) and the implementation of Sociocultural Theory (SCT) in Pedagogical Settings on Second Language Learners’ Written Accuracy Following the Innovated Writing Process IWP The current study argues that learning occurs when there is Ex-implicit grammar teaching and student-student, student-teacher and teacher-student interaction. Following Form-Focused-Instruction (FFI) and the implementation of Sociocultural Theory (SCT) in pedagogical settings form the role of the instructor who seeks to improve the Second/Foreign Language Learners’ written accuracy. An empirical study which lasted four months was conducted on 74 Arab Learners of English (ALEs) forming two groups of 37 each. A detailed analysis was made of the target-like and the non-target-like forms of the simple past tense in 222 written texts produced by ALEs. Written texts were collected from each subject at three stages in the experiment (after two weeks, after two months and after four months). Quantitative and qualitative analyses show the positive impact of Form-Focused-Instruction (FFI) and the implementation of Sociocultural Theory (SCT) in pedagogical settings on Foreign Language Learners’ written accuracy following the Innovated Writing Process IWP. Volume 1, Issue 3, 2013 An Analysis of Student Transition to University: Full-Time vs. Part-Time Students Both full-time and part-time students come across transition problems during their first year in university. Past studies show that there are three adjustments the freshmen encountered when they have just entered the university. They are academic, social and psychological adjustments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the difference between full-time and part-time students in adjusting to universities. The survey methodology was employed and totally 265 first year students from 5 Hong Kong universities have returned the questionnaire. The findings show that the full-time students can transit better to university than part-time students in the academic, social and psychological adjustments. Volume 1, Issue 3, 2013 Assessment of Environmental Professional Awareness of Climate Change: Implication for Climate Change Education Environmental professional are supposed to serve as climate change extension agents, and it is a fact that one cannot give what one does not have. The study is carried out with a view to assessing the level of environmental professional awareness of climate change and coming up with a framework for climate change education. Findings of the study showed that majority of the respondents were not exposed to programmes and activities that could get them acquainted with current issues on climate change and as such they did not believe that they could abate the effects of climate change. The level of awareness of the respondents on climate change was not all that encouraging. Age and gender did not significantly influence environmental professional’s awareness of climate change. Based on these findings the paper suggested among others a framework for climate change education, based on the ideal contents, the tools and methods for such education as well as the networking that should exist among stakeholders. Volume 1, Issue 3, 2013 Differences in Pre-service Teachers' Attitudes about Classroom Management: Elementary and Secondary Perspectives Classroom management as the most sought after skills in educators, and classroom management skills are viewed as markers of teacher effectiveness. In the face of larger and more diverse types of teacher-training formats, the development of classroom management skills and resources is often accomplished in courses that include diverse types of students seeking wide varieties of certifications. This study explored whether a difference in pre-service teacher perceptions and beliefs about classroom management existed based on the type of certification being pursued. Data were collected from 85 pre-service teachers enrolled in undergraduate educational psychology using the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC). Findings indicate differences in the perspectives of pre-service teachers seeking early childhood, elementary and secondary certification regarding classroom management, and further exploration may help teacher educators effectively target and teach classroom management skills. Volume 1, Issue 2, 2013 Effect of Formative Testing with Feedback on Students’ Achievement in Junior Secondary School Mathematics in Ondo State, Nigeria The study investigated the effect of formative testing with feedback as an instructional strategy on junior secondary school students’ achievement in mathematics in Ondo State. The effects of gender and socio-economic status on this learning outcome were also examined. The sample for the study consisted of 227 junior secondary school two (JSS II) students in intact classes of three co-educational schools purposively selected from Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State. The study employed quasi-experimental design with treatment at three levels namely: Formative Test with Feedback, Formative Test only and Non-Formative Test which served as control. The treatment levels were crossed with students’ socio-economic status (high, medium and low) and gender (male and female). Five research instruments namely: Formative Tests I, II and III, Socio-Economic Status Questionnaire (SESQ) and Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) were constructed, validated and used for the collection of all revelant data. The data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Scheffe’s Post-Hoc Analysis. Results from the study revealed a significant effect of treatment on students’ achievement in mathematics. However, there were no significant effects of gender and socio-economic status (SES) on achievement in mathematics. Volume 1, Issue 2, 2013 Relationship between Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) and Her Host Communities in the Promotion of Community Development in Rivers State, Nigeria This study investigates the relationship between Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria and her host Communities in the promotion of community development in Rivers State, Nigeria. Three research questions guide the study. The population of the study was 67,518 residents of the selected host communities in Rivers State while the sample size was 3,376, drawn through purposive and random sampling. The instrument used to collect data was questionnaire titled “Relationship between SPDC and Host Communities for the Promotion of Community Development” (RSPDCHCPCD). The instrument recorded a reliability index of 0.83. Mean analysis was used to answer the research questions. The findings revealed that; SPDC’s exploration/exploitation activities have negative effects on host communities. The study also revealed that community development efforts of SPDC include; offer of scholarship, building/maintenance of health centres, renovation of schools, construction of link roads, building of markets, provision of portable water and electricity etc. Despite these efforts, the relationship between SPDC and her host communities has not been so cordial. It is therefore recommended that the federal government and SPDC should promote capacity building, ensure full participation of the host communities in need identification and evolve strategies that would enthrone peace and harmony in the communities where SPDC operates. Volume 1, Issue 2, 2013 The Role of Dictionaries in Translation Performance: A Case of English to Persian Translation This study tries to see if the application of dictionaries in translation tasks can improve the quality of translation. In order to reach the purpose, this study investigates the issue both quantitatively and qualitatively in two phases. In the opening phase of the project a questionnaire was given to 230 Iranian translators in seven Iranian state universities to investigate the type of monolingual dictionaries they use while translating informative texts like news reports. In the main phase of the study, three groups of translators with different types of dictionaries- hardcover, computer software, and mobile dictionaries- were selected and given the task of translating three news texts from English to Persian, and their translations were assessed in terms of the accuracy of the words and expressions of the source text and the speed of the job. Results indicated that translators using mobile dictionaries rendered the texts more accurately and much faster than the other two groups. Translators using computer software occupied the second rank, and hardcover dictionary users, bringing up the rear, were the last group to finish the job. This study shows how mobile dictionaries can provide help that meets the needs of translators when translating informative texts. Volume 1, Issue 2, 2013 Comparative Analysis of Transformed Continuous Assessment Scores across Southwest States Nigeria This study investigated the extent to which transformed continuous assessment scores are comparable across states in South West Nigeria. The study employed survey and cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 2520 JSS III students selected from 36 secondary schools in 18 Local Government Areas based on multistage, stratified and random sampling techniques. Data were collected directly from the Ministries of Education, continuous assessment Units with a proforma titled Continuous Assessment Retrieval Format. The data collected were subjected to inferential statistics. ANOVA was used to test null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. There was a significant difference in transformed continuous assessment scores in selected school subjects when true score, predictive true score and derived true score were used across the sampled states. Based on the findings, it was recommended that secondary school teachers should be acquainted with the techniques of generating reliable and valid continuous assessment scores. Teachers should be trained the procedure to moderate (transform) continuous assessment scores in schools across the states. Volume 1, Issue 2, 2013 Behaviour Problems and Social Support Which Children Perceived from the Different Sources This research is a descriptive research aimed to examine whether the social support perceived from the different sources is the significant predictor of behaviour problems in children. Participants of the research are composed of 360 students (174 females and 186 males) attending the 5th grades of elementary schools. In the study, Social Support Assessment Scale for Children and Adolescents, and Youth Self Report/YSR 11-18 were used. Data analysis of the study was carried out via descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U Test and stepwise regression analysis. It was seen in this study that in children, the social support perceived from the family, peer and teachers significantly predicts the behaviour problems. While differentiation in accordance with gender is meaningful in the children’s behaviour problems, it was observed that perceived social support from the different sources of children did not significantly show difference in terms of gender. Consequently, it will be useful for the families and teachers as well as the children in the elementary school period to be made to acquire awareness as regards behaviour problems. Also, the prevention and intervention programs intended for different developmental periods to be developed, for the social support sources to be activated and for healthy coping strategies with behaviour problems to be developed. Volume 1, Issue 2, 2013 Students' Perception on the Use of Humor in the Teaching of English as a Second Language in Nigeria Learners’ perceptions about foreign language or second language are becoming issue of attention from various scholars in applied linguistics in recent time (Ayman, 2012; Masoumeh, 2012). The effective teaching of English as Second Language (ESL) is one of the major concerns in Applied Linguistics. Hence, the paper was set out to investigate the perceptions of the use of humor in the teaching of English as L2 on the students of a Tertiary Institution in Nigeria. This approach unraveled the implication of humor both from the positive and negative sides. The paper reflected the relationship between culture and humor as reported by students. It was therefore suggested that the use of humor in the teaching of English as second language (ESL) should be done by teachers with care considering the fact that the linguistic environment is cross cultural, so that the purpose of effective teaching of ESL to learners will be achieved. Volume 1, Issue 2, 2013 A New Method to Setting Standard for the Wide Range of Language Proficiency Levels A new methodological tool is introduced to standard setting of language proficiency level of test takers. The traditional methods are strong when a narrow range of proficiency levels are assessed but in some cases they produce odd results with the tests of wide range of levels. The Three-phased Theory-based and Test-centered method for the Wide range of proficiency levels (3TTW) is developed on the basis of Metsämuuronen’s 2TTW especially for the settings where several proficiency levels have to be found at one shot. This is needed in most cases when students’ learning outcomes are assessed (inter)national wise. The 3TTW procedure is compared with a traditional method and 2TTW. A practical application of the method is given with a reading test in Nepal. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013 Challenges of Sustainability and Urban Development: A Case of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria Sustainable development is a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. As a result of the attraction of people to a particular geographical region due to perceived development, as time goes on, there will be competition in-various ways by which land can be put to use leading gradually to urban growth in such location. Data for this study were collected from primary sources, through personal observation and the random administration of 250 questionnaires on categories of respondents in the study area. Results for this study revealed that infrastructural facilities, poor health care delivery system, low standard of education and poor standard of living were the challenges of sustainability and development in the study area. This study therefore recommends that development programmes should be aimed at uplifting the standard of people in the area and as such maintenance culture should be imbibed by all and sundry in the study area. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013 Sustainable Women's Participation in Democratic Process in Nigeria: The Community Education Option There had been many years of political instability and military dictatorship in Nigeria before the present fourth republic. The atmosphere of democratic governance seems not yet steady. Nigeria is still passing through the phase of democratization from 1999 till date. The political scene had been dominated by men, just like other decision-making spheres, women’s participation in democratic process is still very low. This still largely accounts for the level of education of women and political practice characterized by godfatherism, violence, money, thuggery, electoral irregularities and weak democratic institution. This paper purports that community education is a good option for Nigeria to get to a threshold level of democratisation, for sustainable women’s participation in democracy in Nigeria as it will educate the people on the need for democratisation and an equal representation of the people in democracy. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013 Development of the Engineering Technology Word List for Vocational Schools in Malaysia The increasing demand for specialised instruction or lexis for Non-Native English Speakers (NNES) in various disciplines has brought about extensive research of specialized vocabulary in academic texts which help learners to make acquainted with their discourse communities. The word list which consists of the most essential words or known as “building blocks” in the specialized field is regarded as one of the most significant prerequisites in terms of curriculum development. This research emphasizes on the most frequently used engineering academic vocabulary in the form of an engineering technology word list developed using locally written Malaysian engineering technology textbooks for vocational programmes in upper secondary education. The frequently used engineering technology words are selected from the vocational-programme engineering corpus (VPEC) to enhance English for Engineering Purposes (EEP) learning. A word list named Engineering Technology Word List (ETWL) is developed and it is a valuable resource to English for Engineering Purposes (EEP) in Malaysia. The introduction of this word list can be a source of reference where key vocabulary can be accessed for curriculum development in vocational programmes. Besides that, in order for the publishers and EEP textbook writers to further advance the arrangement of vocabulary in developing EEP material, the ETWL should be the key reference. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013 Attitude and Experience as Influencing Variables of Teachers’ Perception of Difficult Concepts in Primary Science in Ikom Educational Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria: The Need for Curriculum Review This study investigated primary school teachers’ attitude and teaching experience as some of the variables influencing teachers’ perception of difficult concepts in Primary Science in Ikom Educational Zone of Cross River State. Three null hypotheses were formulated on the basis of the identified independent variables of attitude and years of teaching experience. The teacher variables and perception of difficult concepts in Primary Science Inventory (TVPDCPSI) was developed and used in gathering data from 482 primary school teachers in 33(out of 330) primary schools in the study area as sample, using cluster and random sampling procedures and the ex-post facto design. Generated data were analyzed using population t-test, independent t-test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at .05 alpha levels. It was revealed that teachers found some concepts/topics in the primary science curriculum difficult; and that their attitude and experience/years of service significantly influence their perception of this difficulty. It was concluded that teachers who cultivate negative attitude towards Primary Science, as well as those with less than five (5) years of teaching experience significantly find the teaching of the subject/concepts more difficulty than those who cultivate positive attitude. Recommendations were that compulsory teaching of Primary Science by all primary school teachers should be discouraged, while teachers should be motivated by in-service training for specialization in such specific school subjects, among others. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013