Journal of Business and Management Journal of Business and Management (JBM) is an international, peer-reviewed, and open-access journal dedicated to publish high quality, original papers, and research developments in theories and applications in all fields of business and management. The primary purpose of the JBM is to keep a record of the state-of-the-art research and to promote study, research and improvement within general fields in business and management. The JBM publish original research papers. Its scope embraces the following topics: global business, e-business, business law and business ethics, business finance and investment, general management, organizational behavior and theory, entrepreneurship, organization studies, corporate governance, marketing, finance, economics, human resource management, strategic management, supply chain management, production and operations management, information technology management, technology and innovation, social issues and public policy, public administration and relevant subjects. Security Challenge, Bank Fraud and Commercial Bank Performance in Nigeria: An Evaluation The issues of insecurity and fraud in the banking sector of the Nigerian have become the concern of everyone. Achumba, Ighomereho, and Akpor-Robaro (2013) maintain that the concrete evidences of these incidences in different parts of Nigeria indicate that the security challenge in the country is enormous and complex and would continue to be, if the situation remains unabated. This paper evaluates the insecure situation, bank fraud and their impact on bank performance. This evaluation requires the formulation of some testable hypotheses to confirm the impact of insecurity and fraud on bank performance. Multiple regression analysis was applied to determine if there is any significant relationship between the indicators of bank insecurity, fraud and the earnings before tax (the indicator of bank performance) of the Commercial banks in Nigeria. Data were obtained through secondary sources on the indicators of bank insecurity and fraud and the earnings before tax of Commercial banks in Nigeria for the period 1991 -2013 from Nigeria Deposit and Insurance Corporation’s Annual Report. The results of the study demonstrate an inverse relationship between Expected Losses on insecurity and Fraud (ELF), Number of Fraud Cases (NFC) and Number of Staff involved in Fraud Cases and earnings before tax of commercial banks in Nigeria. The results of the Granger causality test show a uni-directional causality from bank insecurity and fraud to commercial bank performance. However, the Volume (Amount) of bank insecurity, Fraud cases (VFC) and earnings of commercial banks in the parsimonious ECM show positive but significant relationship. We therefore recommend that both government and banks should team up and involve foreign intervention in fighting insecurity and fraud in the banking sector. New staff of the bank should have a guarantor who will pledge a reasonable sum with the bank in case the staff is involved in fraud. Directors should be knowledgeable in accounting and banking and must have stakes in the bank. Volume 5, Issue 2, 2016 Consulting Role of Internal Auditors: Exploratory Evidence from Malaysia This paper discusses the added value that business can gain from the internal auditors via their consulting role. It is an explanatory study that provides an overview of the consulting activities within the business context. In the current complexity and constantly changing business issues, leveraging on the wealth of collective information about the business obtained by internal auditors in order to add value and improve organizational competitiveness would be a good strategy. In the stewardship perspective, internal audit would support the board and management team through consulting role and are expected to provide advice on the business improvement or future investment opportunities if the company is aggressive for new ventures etc. Fifteen (15) in-depth interviews with the Heads of Internal Audit departments from large Malaysian organizations were carried out. This is to investigate the nature, and extent of consulting activity in the companies analyzed. The results show that internal auditors provided consultation upon the request of management, board of directors or audit committee, on ad-hoc basis to help improve business operations and to achieve organizational objectives. This paper contributes to the literature by providing a deeper insight into nature and extent of consulting activity which internal auditors perform. It investigates an unexplored area of the role of internal auditors as consultants and opens several interesting avenues for future research. Volume 5, Issue 2, 2016 Achieving Technology Dominance for Startups: Illustrative Evidence of the Importance of Establishing Inter-Organizational Networks In this paper we study the influence of the network of actors on the chances that a start-up will be successful in commercializing a platform. Scholars that study platform wars have conducted multiple studies of factors that influence platform dominance where the focus lies on factors that can be influenced by the firm (firm-level factors) and factors that are given in specific industries which can hardly be influenced by firms (environmental factors). Few studies have included views from platforms and entrepreneurship to understand the successful commercialization of new platform. A common research approach in both fields of platforms and entrepreneurship is network analyses. In this paper we conceptualize how entrepreneurs can apply network strategies to successfully commercialize their new products in an emerging market in the first phases of the technology dominance process. We illustrate our ideas by means of several examples. Volume 5, Issue 1, 2016 Assessment of the Profitability of a Revenue Investment with Random Times between Uniform Successive Returns Investments with random cash flow streams are much closer to describe the real financial environment of a revenue generating investment than constant cash flow streams .A cash flow stream is considered under risk if at least one of its parameters is a random variable with a given probability distribution. Many models of random cash flows were investigated by researchers. However, this study aims to survey the economic worth of cash flows with random time between equal returns on the initial investment. This study develops criteria for the profitability based on the rate of return of the expected net present worth, and make comparisons to the expected rate of return based on simulations. The concept of moment generating functions of random variables is employed to get the analytic forms of the expectations. This study also considers many possible distributions for the random separating time between returns and supply a sufficient number of numerical examples. The findings show that this financial model applies to apartment buildings, condominiums, shopping malls, and the management of inventory stocks of expensive items. Volume 5, Issue 1, 2016 The Impact of Allusion between Words and Image on the Observer’s Perception in Hyperadvertising Humor in house advertising and hyperadvertising published by French advertising agencies includes more linguistic phenomena than business to business advertising, but only a few works in the literature have looked at the business to consumer context. This paper concentrates on wordplay and analyzes which specific linguistic elements are used in humorous agency advertising, how they strengthen brand value in comparison to nonhumorous advertising, and how more effective advertising can be designed. Major results are that the allusion between words and images is the most common kind of wordplay and that humor is employed in a test-in-process manner which leads to more choices of linguistic phenomena. Volume 5, Issue 1, 2016 Buyers’ Perspective of Buyer-Supplier Relationship Development: Interaction of Key Variables In this paper, we propose and test a three-stage model. A relationship begins at the Pre-Deal Stage (t-1), where, Buyer and Supplier Power are likely to impact Input Commitment. The relationship moves on to the Deal Enactment Stage (t), where the Input Commitment is likely to foster Low Relational Embeddedness. This, in turn, develops Contractual Trust that leads to a business deal and Attitudinal Commitment. Depending on requirements and mutual satisfaction, the relationship may then move to the Continuation Stage (t+1), where the developed Attitudinal Commitment enhances High Relational Embeddedness. From this comes Competence-based Trust and Temporal Commitment. Temporal Commitment and High Relational Embeddedness is likely to further produce Goodwill Trust and improved Overall Performance. This research study extends existing literature by empirically testing a cohesive model, which explains the different, multidimensional roles relational constructs can play in a relationship, and how these relationships evolve over time. Volume 4, Issue 4, 2015 Turnover Intention, Organizational Commitment, and Specific Job Satisfaction among Production Employees in Thailand The purpose of this study was to examine how turnover intention relates to the attitudinal variables of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. We highlighted three specific facets of job satisfaction—personal development, human resources policy, and supervision—in a research context of Thailand, an important emerging market. A Thai company that operated a business in the fishing industry participated in this study, and the sample consisted of 255 employees who had worked for the company at least 3 months. The results of our analysis using a structural equation model indicated that Thai employees’ satisfaction with supervisors significantly affected turnover intention, while personal development and human resources policy indirectly influenced turnover intention through organizational commitment, which strongly mediated the relationship. Based on these findings, we concluded that the specific job satisfaction facet of supervision tends to be a direct determinant of turnover intention, while the two facets of personal development and human resources policy are likely to be an indirect determinant mediated by organizational commitment. Volume 4, Issue 4, 2015 Service Customer's Active Role-Play and Its Impact on Customer Perceptions of Service Outcome As firms’ interest in actively engaging customers throughout the business process grows, so has firms’ need to better understand its impact on service outcomes not only from the firm’s perspective but also from the customer’s perspective. This study is an attempt to define “customer's active role-play” in a service delivery system, identify its key dimensions and measurement items, and assess its impact on customers, particularly on customer perceptions of service outcomes as opposed to objective service outcomes. Volume 4, Issue 4, 2015 Reverse Innovation Networks: Connecting Emerging Economies to the Developed World Reverse innovation (RI) is a relatively recent and understudied phenomenon. It is a product development strategy where an innovation is designed and adopted first in emerging economies before transferring to the West. Research has not comprehensively explained what induces RI. Since RI results in international network building, this research engages network theory to shed light on the network mechanisms likely to position new emerging market SMEs for RI. Illustrations from the sustainable transportation sector provide some applicable clarifying context. Cities around the world are similarly growing rapidly such that firms’ transportation technologies can be interchanged across them, but the technologies may also require some local customization. Overall, the theoretical development suggests that: 1) network centrality in terms of prominence, 2) connectedness to powerful others as defined by eigenvector centrality, and 3) brokerage in accordance with betweenness centrality could be indicative of potential RI in local and international value system networks. This research adds to the literature on the dynamics of globalization. Volume 4, Issue 3, 2015 The Effect of Organizational Justice Perception on Organizational Commitment among Healthcare Sector Employees This study aims to examine the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational justice perceptions of employees working in private healthcare institutions in Van province. Within this purpose, the data was obtained through a questionnaire administered to 300 employees of four hospitals in Van. To measure the organizational justice perceptions of the employees, the organizational justice scale with three constructs was used, and their organizational commitment was measured with the organizational commitment scale having three constructs as well. According to the results, it was revealed that organizational justice perceptions of the employees influence their organizational commitment perceptions positively. Volume 4, Issue 3, 2015 Understanding the Motivation of Hospital Volunteers: Are there Gender Differences This study examines the relationship between hospital volunteers’ gender and their motivation to volunteer. An empirical analysis of survey data from 426 volunteers shows significant differences between the two groups. That is, the factors that motivate male volunteer workers are significantly different from those that motivate female volunteers. Some explanations as well as generalizations and implications for hospital administrators and human resources managers are developed. Volume 4, Issue 3, 2015 Relationship with Supervisor and Co-Workers, Psychological Condition and Employee Engagement in the Workplace This study aims to examine the relationship model of supervisor relations, co-worker relations, psychological conditions, and employee engagement. In particular, this study aims to test models of influence psychological conditions on employee engagement in the workplace. In addition, this study also aims to examine the influence of psychological condition variable as a mediator variable on the relationship between good relations with co-workers and supervisors and employee engagement. This research was conducted at the private companies in Yogyakarta, with a sample of 191 employees. Testing four models of the relationship is done by using structural equation modeling with AMOS program. Results of this study show that most models fit to the data. There is mediating model of psychological conditions on the relationship between supervisor relations, co-worker relations and employee engagement. This study confirmed previous research showing that psychological conditions as mediated variable between antecedents and employee engagement. A thorough discussion on the relationship among the variables as well as on self rating is presented in this paper. Volume 4, Issue 3, 2015 Do Board and Audit Committee Characteristics Affect Firm’s Cost of Equity Capital? This paper examines the association between board and audit committee characteristics and cost of equity capital. Using a sample of TSX-S&P 300 firms, our analysis shows that overall audit committee characteristics are negatively associated to the cost of equity capital. The size of the audit committee and the non-duality of the Chairman of the board are, however, positively related to the cost of equity capital. The results also confirm that being listed on the American stock exchange affects the relationship between non-duality of the Chairman of the board and cost of equity capital. However, being listed in the US capital market doesn’t change the relationship between audit committee features and the cost of equity capital and this can be explained by the fact that audit committee regulatory requirements are similar and mandatory in both Canadian and American capital markets. Volume 4, Issue 2, 2015 Developing a Framework of Double-Loop Knowledge Management Model on Customer Self-Service Systems This study developed a framework of double-loop knowledge management (KM) model that constructed a successful foundation of a problem solving orientation in the main stream of public service domain. Aiming at the potential benefits on customer self-service systems, we proposed a set of research propositions that represents the essential relatedness between the necessary elements and its performance under the settings in Taiwan’s e-government. The four essential elements including organization, leadership, learning and technology were inferred to have positive effects on KM implementations that provide a suitable route for enhancing problem solving performances in customer self-service systems. Facing a disproportionate condition of knowledge within interpersonal networks, the framework provides a powerful filter to sieve out the beneficial knowledge that is produced, shared, or integrated by one's own side, and could decrease the cognitive gaps among the interaction of customers or members (citizens, businesses, employees and other agencies for government administration) towards a holistic approach of KM practices. Volume 4, Issue 2, 2015 A Study of e-Government Business Model with Customer Relationship Management Driven in Taiwan The study examined the relationship among customer relationship management (CRM) readiness, e-government (e-Gov) business model and customer equity to indicate the advisable actions on citizen-centric e-Gov business model. Based on the benchmarking concept, the study used the questionnaire to analyze the influences of CRM readiness (blueprint management, change management, human resource, process management, ICT resource) on e-Gov business model (administration innovation, customer interface, service infrastructure, resources allocation) and the effect of citizen-centric e-Gov business model through customer equity (value, brand, relationship). The results can identify the level of CRM readiness in Taiwanese leading departments/agencies and improve the service process for e-Gov business model with a CRM perspective. The study found that: 1. Governments can enhance the effects of e-Gov business model through CRM readiness examining. 2. The sustainable customer equity can be transformed through e-Gov business model. 3. CRM participation and experience sharing could be broadened through the mechanisms of life-long learning for public servants further. Volume 4, Issue 2, 2015 Italian Network Contracts: A New Instrument for Successful Cooperation The study focuses on SMEs which decide to develope inter-firm cooperation through”network contracts”, the purpose is to evaluate the usefulness of this new legal instrument provided by Italian law in 2010. In particular the paper aims to verify the ability of a “contract” to formalize an inter-firm relationship allowing a successful cooperation between SMEs. Moreover it identifies and analyzes the characteristics of networks based on this flexible contract, looking for the reasons why it should ensure, to the involved firms, an increased performance. After a preliminary secondary data review, conducted on 3300 firms (which signed network contracts between 2010 and 2012) aimed at identify the sectorial, territorial and dimensional peculiarity of this networks; the phenomenon is investigated through 5 case studies looking for field evidence, on the advantages perceived by firms signing network contract, by identifying the elements of the contract able to support successful networks. Moreover, a first attempt to measure the effect of contract networks on performance is realized through a descriptive statistical analysis of the Return on Investment (ROI) on a sample of 122 network firms. The study main findings are the identifications of the reasons of effectiveness of network contracts and the advantages potentially achieved by network firms because of the contract. The study allows the identification of recommendation about industrial policy regarding SMEs, mainly suggesting Governments to incentive the participation of SMEs to networks by introducing network contracts. Volume 4, Issue 2, 2015 Whether our Virtual Commercial Environments are Polite enough or not? An Instrument for Gauging the Degree of Politeness in e-Tailers Politeness issues in virtual commercial contexts received rare attention from both practitioners and researchers. This work developed an instrument for gauging degree of politeness in online retailers’ storefronts. The instrument’s reliability and validity were confirmed through empirical data analysis. A second-order confirmatory factor analysis revealed that online consumers' tendency in paying relative more attention to their rights being respected and gaining useful information while they are assessing online retailers’ politeness. Using the instrument, online merchants and 3rd-parties can measure the degree of politeness in online retailers. In addition, patrons’ tendency in paying more attention to particular factors while they were evaluating the politeness guides online merchants to allocate limited resources more efficiently. Besides its practical applications, this work sets a stage for future studies trying to investigate the relationships between the politeness construct and other constructs such as customer satisfaction, trust, repurchase intention, profitability, and others that interest business administrators. Volume 4, Issue 2, 2015 Does Justice Make a Way for Loyalty? Analysis of survey data significantly confirmed that overall organizational justice perceived by employees is positively related with overall organizational loyalty attitudes of employees. On the overall loyalty, only interactional justice has an effect; distributive and procedural justice has no effect. The greatest effect of loyalty components is on the “attachment” component of loyalty. As a result; by justice efforts, mostly by interactional justice efforts on firms almost only “attachment” component can be improved among loyalty components. Volume 4, Issue 2, 2015 Global Growth from an Investor's Point of View - Initial Public Offerings in the Fashion and Accessories Industry In this paper we analyze the long-run stock price performance of 207 initial public offerings in the fashion and leather accessories industry between 1990 and 2007. We find a highly significant underperformance of IPO stocks compared to corresponding benchmark indices. Cross-sectional regression analysis reveals that underperformance is mainly driven by offerings of smaller, less mature companies that are not taken public by a prestigious underwriter. Nevertheless, we also find that fashion IPO firms experience a considerable reduction in their systematic risk exposure due to the realization of real options which helps to explain at least part of their seemingly poor stock price performance. Volume 4, Issue 1, 2015 Relationships between Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance: What is the Causality? This study examines the causal relationships between the various dimensions of corporate social responsibility (human resources, human rights in the workplace, societal commitment, respect for the environment, market behavior and governance) and financial performance (return on equity, return on assets, market to book ratio). It is based on a sample of 329 listed companies in three geographical areas (the United States, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region) for the years 2009 and 2010. Linear regression analysis and the Granger causality test were used to examine the causal relationships between social responsibility and financial performance. The results show not only that greater social responsibility does not result in better financial performance, but also that financial performance negatively impacts corporate social responsibility. Volume 4, Issue 1, 2015 Analysis of Consumer Behavior of Organic Food in North Sumatra Province, Indonesia This research is driven by lack of knowledge of the marketers about organic consumers and to understand the motivations behind organic purchases. This study explores the effects ofvariables of organic food knowledge, environmental knowledge, health knowledge, culture, product attribute, subjective norms, and familiarity on organic attitudes, purchase intentions and behavior. This research is conducted by using a sample consisting of 270 respondents that were taken at several organic markets. The results indicate that organic food knowledge, health knowledge and subjective norm variables were able to explain organic food purchases, while the cultural and the food attributes have no effect on attitudes. Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) was able to provide a framework for studying the behavior of consumer attitudes towards organic food. Practical implications of this study should focus on knowledge of organic food, and health knowledge. Volume 4, Issue 1, 2015 Solving Decision Problems with Dependent Criteria by New Fuzzy Multicriteria Method in Excel We propose a new MCDM method based on fuzzy pair-wise comparisons and a feedback between the criteria. The evaluation of the weights of criteria, the variants as well as the feedback between the criteria is based on the data given in pair-wise comparison matrices. Extended arithmetic operations with fuzzy numbers are used as well as ordering fuzzy relations to compare fuzzy outcomes. An illustrating numerical example is presented to clarify the methodology. A special SW – Microsoft Excel add-in named FVK was developed for applying the proposed method. Comparing to other software products, FVK is free, able to work with fuzzy data and utilizes capabilities of widespread spreadsheet Microsoft Excel. Volume 3, Issue 4, 2014 Product Architecture and Supply Chain Management Design in Emerging Markets: A Case Study of Japanese Firms in Brazil No firm can control all areas of their supply chain. Product architecture is a crucial element of value analysis in supply chain management (SCM). In this article, we explore the following research questions: (1) What is the relationship between product architecture and SCM practices? (2) How can we apply this framework to business practices? To analyze our research topics, we will show a framework for relationship of product architecture and sourcing. To make our specific framework applicable to firms, we do case studies of Japanese firms in Brazil, comparing with Korean electronic firms in Brazil. This paper mainly examines the case of Japanese firms in Brazil from the standpoint of product architecture and SCM. With a relatively weak Brazilian domestic supplier network, not all component parts can be deployed there. Global supply chain management is useful for cost reduction for certain raw materials. Technologically, some parts need to be procured from outside of Japan. In particular, many component parts for motorcycle manufacturers require integral architecture in contrast to electronics products. Firm H is successful in SCM integration through helping Japanese suppliers relating to integral architecture to move into Brazil and at the same time raising the internal production ratio. Lessons and implications are briefly discussed. Volume 3, Issue 4, 2014 National Differences in Stakeholder Pressure to Adopt Codes of Ethics: A Four-Country Study Academic research related to the perceived value of ethics codes in different national contexts has been limited despite burgeoning interest by managers, government officials and members of international nonprofit organizations. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between promoting a positive external firm image and stakeholder pressure to adopt codes of ethics. Moreover, we assess the extent to which market and non-market stakeholder pressure varies across national borders. A survey instrument developed in the United States is adapted to a cross-national setting and hypotheses related to codes of ethics are tested. Empirical results based on 540 respondents from four nations, Peru, China, the United States and Canada, support that national differences exist with respect to perceptions of ethics codes. A significant relationship between creating an external image and perceived pressure from stakeholders is also identified. Study limitations, managerial implications, and promising future research directions are also discussed. Volume 3, Issue 4, 2014 Influence of Cultural Factors for Global Brand Management This study tested a theoretical model that includes nine factors hypothesized to exert significant influence on effective global brand management. These influencing factors include values, beliefs, attitudes, education, religion, myths, colors, taste, and rituals. A sample population of 75 (n=75) respondents were surveyed from 30 multinational companies from seven different industries: pharmaceutical, leisure, fast food, financial, technology, telecommunication, and consumer goods to measure the degree of influence of the nine factors on global brand management. Cronbach Alpha supported the reliability (.827). SPSS was used to run regression and partial correlation. The model is well-fitting the data, given the number of variables and data points. The results suggest Consideration of Culture to Effective Global Brand Management correlated positively. All three hypotheses were supported with a positive correlation value. However, third hypothesis was nullified due to different partial correlation values. Understanding the influence of cultural elements (perspectives) on global brand management should be of interest and value for managers who can, in return, focus on applying the findings for effective global brand management. Volume 3, Issue 4, 2014 The Influence of Accounting Information Systems (AIS) on Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Iraq The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence use of Accounting Information System (AIS) performance in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Iraq. The study discusses and explores the effects of the use of AIS on the performance of SMEs. The result of this study is expected to help the owners and manager of SMEs to understand the importance of the use of AIS to achieve performance. The use of AIS is influenced by several characteristics enjoyed by the accounting information such as: reliability, relevance, and timeliness that effect on SMEs' performance. The result of this study and modern literature shows that AIS characteristics enjoyed by the accounting information such as: reliability, relevance, and timeliness have significant effects on the use of AIS and SMEs' performance. Prior researches have shown that is crucial for SMEs to use AIS to ensure business continuity and survival in the increasingly competitive environment and to enhance their business operations capability and efficiency. The study is one of few that shed light on how the use of AIS affects the performance of SMEs. In this study, the authors propose that dimensions of using AIS are important for improve the performance of SMEs. Volume 3, Issue 4, 2014 Utilization of Social Media for an Interdisciplinary Experiential Learning Study Abroad Program The development of global awareness is essential for college students to compete in today’s international workplace. Interdisciplinary courses in higher education provide an opportunity for faculty to enhance student learning regarding the global marketplace. This paper examined the creation and delivery of an International Business in France course. The course was developed in cooperation between three academic departments and encompassed the study of business, economy, and culture. The course also contained an off campus study trip to Paris, France. Information from the trip was shared through social media to enhance the college’s marketing material. Volume 3, Issue 3, 2014 The only Correct Calculation Method in Cost Management: From Activity Based Costing Perspective In late 1980’s National Association of Accountants had introduced Activity-based costing – a cost accounting technique which charges organization’s indirect costs to the activities that cause the costs to be incurred and then distributes costs of activities to the products that cause the activities to be performed. Activity-based costing as a management tool has proved its relevance and found its proponents among academics and managers. Introduction of the time aspect into Activity-based costing proved that it is still attracting attention and undergoing development in order to become more accurate. The paramount goal of the implementation is to prove the increased effectiveness and superiority of cost management when using Activity-based costing. It will be achieved by allocation of overhead costs to products with the intention to determine unit costs. This process of allocation will increase the reliability of cost information and improve the information base for product decisions. Moreover, we expect that this approach will more or less alter the profit margin of individual products. This kind of information is very useful when evaluating price-related or keep/drop decisions. Volume 3, Issue 3, 2014 Strategy Implementation Framework Used by SMEs in Zimbabwe The field of strategic management has been expanding to embrace new concepts and models with a view to better understanding the field. One area of strategic management which is gaining currency is strategy implementation. Many a scholar and practitioner is exploring ways in which strategy implementation can be enhanced for organisations to function effectively. Several approaches have been proffered including the development of implementation models and frameworks. This study seeks to enhance strategy implementation knowledge among SMEs in Zimbabwe by developing a new framework that seeks to shed light on how the SMEs implement strategy. The development of the framework seeks to explain why, despite government policies to support economic growth, SMEs in Zimbabwe have failed to drive economic growth yet evidence from literature has indicated the significant role played by SMEs in growing economies in other countries. In depth interviews were used to gather the data from multiple case studies. The major finding of this study was that the framework used by SMEs in Zimbabwe emphasized both self and family survival. There appears to be a significant focus on inward behaviour that focuses on relationships and family anchored business survival. This could be the underlying reasons for the somewhat underperformance of SMEs in delivering strong economic growth in Zimbabwe despite a plethora of state driven assistance programmes. There is therefore need to test the applicability of this model in a longitudinal study and make adaptations to make the current framework have a more business focussed approach. Volume 3, Issue 2, 2014 The Effect of Social Capital on College Students' Initial Job Selection in South Korea This study aims to explore whether college and family social capital influences the job selection of college students. When demographic variables such as gender and college type are controlled for, logistic regression of 2,145 college students shows that only college social capital, such as peer friendship (β = .160), extracurricular activities (β = .096), and academic advisors counseling (β = .047), affects their job selection. Based on this finding, college students, on and off campus, are recommended to form close networks with various college constituents, and academic advisors to make continuous network with their students. In addition, college administrations can help build career-oriented extracurricular activities and encourage college students to participate in these activities. Volume 3, Issue 2, 2014 Impact of Aggregated Cost of Human Resources on Profitability: An Empirical Study In Nigeria, the past decades have witnessed a transition from manufacturing to service based economics. The fundamental difference between the two sectors lies in the very nature of their assets. The former sectors are driven by physical asset like plant, and machinery while the later sector is driven by knowledge, skill and attitude of the employee. This had lead to a paradigm shift in expenditure on those assets and interest. As expenditure on human resource increases also lead to the demand for its inclusion in financial report. Expenditure on human resource has two components, the expense and the investment. Conventional accounting treat both as revenue expenditure, this aggregated approach has a negative effect on the profitability. This study examined the relationship between (1) The aggregated cost of human resource and organizational profitability. (2) The effect of the disaggregated cost of human resources on organization profitability. Data was extracted from internal source using a structured information card and annual financial report. Regression analysis was used. The findings show that there is a positive relationship between profitability and human resource cost. It also shows that changes in profitability can be explained when the expenditure on human resource are segregated into revenue expenditure and capital expenditure. The study recommends amongst other, that BETA NIG PLC should imbibe the culture of capitalizing and reporting all investment on human resource that improve the quality and productivity. Volume 3, Issue 2, 2014 Impact of Information Technology Infrastructure Flexibility on the Competitive Advantage of Small and Medium Sized-Enterprises The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of information technology infrastructure flexibility (ITIF) on competitive advantage (CA) of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). For this purpose, this paper conducted multivariate analysis of covariance by using ITIF as an independent variable and four dependent variables for CA: production cost, fast and reliable delivery, product quality, and flexibility of product design, which are also essential factors in IT buying decision making for organizations. The results of this study show that having a flexible IT infrastructure positively influences all four variables of CA. Moreover, the result of the univariate analysis indicates that the SMEs’ highest benefit of having ITIF is the improvement of product quality and an increased flexibility of product design. These results emphasize the importance of ITIF for SMEs and cloud computing, as a means for achieving this flexibility. Volume 3, Issue 1, 2014 Entrepreneurs Psychological Perspective and Enterprise Graduation in Eldoret Town, Kenya Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) enormously contribute to the Kenyan economy through employment and income generation. In spite of this contribution, their performance in terms of graduation is little understood. The evidence supporting the view of micro and small enterprises as the engine of growth is limited. This study was based on Schein’s model by Edgar Schein career Anchors was anticipated to shade light on the motivation on the graduation of MSEs. The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of psychological perspective of an entrepreneur on enterprise graduation in Eldoret town Kenya. The study was conducted in Eldoret Municipality Central Business District (CBD) in Uasin Gishu County targeting micro and small enterprises licensed and registered by Eldoret Municipal Council. A sample size of 189 was selected in this study. Stratified-simple random sampling technique was used. Primary and secondary data was used to achieve the objective of the study. Primary data was collected using questionnaires and secondary data was collected from Eldoret Municipal achieve. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The study findings indicated that; the psychological perspective of an entrepreneur had a statistical significant effect with graduation. The study concludes that entrepreneurers’ should enhance their entrepreneurial competence. Volume 3, Issue 1, 2014 Human Capacity Building in Selected Local Government Areas of Ebonyi State, Nigeria - The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations and Development Agencies (2000 - 2008) The role of Non-governmental organizations and Development Agencies in Human Capacity-Building in selected Local Government Areas of Ebonyi State; and the effectiveness of Capacity-building programmes in facilitating community development were examined. The study reviewed the contributions of Scholars in this area and related fields; with particular attention to the activities of indigenous NGOs and the Ebonyi State, Community-Based Poverty Reduction Agency. To effectively evaluate the activities of these bodies, the focus of the Research was on issues relating to human capacity-building through workshops and training as well as issues on capacity-building through micro-projects at the community and council levels. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested using chi-square method. The study adopted the System Approach to training and that of Development participation. Data were collected via: structured questionnaires, interviews, records and documents. The central point of the findings is that the Agencies’ capacity building efforts cannot promote skill acquisition, and most of their outcomes are not sustainable at the grassroot. The study recommended, among others, that the skills acquisition centres should be equipped and that capacity building programmes should involve the people at the critical stages of the process, in addition to sequencing programmes in accordance with assessed needs of the time. That sustainability could be ensured through participative processes to strengthen the involvement of local communities; with special attention to maintenance arrangements. These, would assist the government, NGOs and Development Agencies appreciate new strategies in the efforts on capacity development at the grassroots. Volume 3, Issue 1, 2014 From Acting What's next to Speeding Trap: Co-Evolutionary Dynamics of an Emerging Technology-Leader How does technological innovation emerge and evolve? We approach such an inquiry by synthesizing the perspectives of dynamic capabilities and co-evolutionary dynamics to portray organizational routines and multi-phase strategic renewals of an emerging technology-leader. To untangle the emergence of technological innovation, we conducted a longitudinal case study on the first and the largest dedicated semiconductor foundry, TSMC, located in the emerging economy of Taiwan. The firm-case of TSMC illustrates two unique co-evolutionary paths, that is, transforming from industry-latecomer to technology-leader and from process innovation to product innovation. We found multi-motor co-evolutionary dynamics between TSMC and the semiconductor industry, where its co-evolutionary mechanism of managed selection in its creating phase of mature process-innovation (1987-1998) has migrated to hierarchical renewal in its extending phase of advanced process-innovation (1999-2001), and then to holistic renewal in its modifying phase of product-innovation (2002-2007). During such paths, our research discovered a unique type of organizational routines, acting what’s next because TSMC has proactively searched for potential problems sooner than its competitors. However, such routines, although driving technological innovation, also lead to a unique type of success-trap, that is, speeding trap. When an emerging technology-leader fundamentally changes the industrial structures to over-specs, the growth driven by technology speeding may trap such a leader in a loop of over-exploration. Volume 2, Issue 4, 2013 The Effects of Education and Incongruent Images on Product Warnings The research reported in this article investigates how the education level of consumers affects liking and safety feeling toward a product when incongruent images are present with product warnings. The current study used a 2 by 2 experimental methodology to investigate underlying psychological processes of adult consumers who have varying levels of education. The current study finds that relative to high-education consumers, low-education consumers (those who did not complete high school) were more significantly affected by the presence of incongruent images in the product warnings. They displayed higher liking and more safety feeling toward a product when warnings accompanied incongruent images versus warnings with no images. This effect is not found among high-education consumers. That result has alarming implications. Low-education consumers may be unable to critically evaluate product warnings and can be persuaded to misjudge product warnings and product safety when product warnings include incongruent images. The current research extends the previous research on low-education consumers by studying the impact of incongruent images in the product warnings. Specifically, we focus on investigation of subjective attitude formation of warnings (liking and safety feeling) in the presence of incongruent images which was not investigated in the past. Volume 2, Issue 4, 2013 An Assessment of Human Resource Capital and Goodwill: A Study of Selected Commercial Banks in Nigeria The study assessed the impact of human resource capital on goodwill in the Banking Sector of Nigeria, by a survey of ten (10) commercial Banks quoted in the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Data were obtained from the annual report and accounts of the selected banks under study. The relevant data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results of the study revealed that there is a positive and significance relationship between Human Resource Capital and Goodwill in the Banking Sector. It was also empirically verified that the inclusion of human resource capital value in the balance sheet of firms does help investors to make more rational investment decisions. The researchers recommended that, financial regulatory bodies such as IASB, IFRSB, FRCN, NSE, SEC, etc. should put in place polices to effect the inclusion of human resource capital value in the financial reports of Nigerian Companies. Volume 2, Issue 4, 2013 An Analysis of Organization Development Process in Telecom Industry in Bangladesh Analyzing the organization development process of Robi Axiata Ltd. is the main objective of this study. For this reason the study has shown the effect of implementation of development process in some areas of organization such as rebranding of Aktel to Robi Axiata Ltd., changes in organogram, procurement side, technological side and HR side of the organization. Some of the specialist and manager of HR division of the company have been interviewed to collect relevant data regarding the subject matter. Robi's biggest change effort was its rebranding from Aktel. There was big impact of such strategy in the overall organization. Due to this transformation the organogram has also brought changes in employee position. Such changes have persuasion on employee satisfaction. The organization has made a significant change in technological, procurement and HR side as well. Such changes have brought a big impact on their growth rate, market share and profitability. Now the organization is not only thinking to be limited in these changes, but also thinking to bring 3G technology as a part of its development. Volume 2, Issue 4, 2013 Using Facebook® to Gain Academic Information: The Case of a Private Higher Education Institution in Malaysia Logistics Department in one of the private higher education institution has encouraged its students to obtain information at the departmental level from its Facebook® account named Logistics Student Association (LSA) Facebook®. This study applies two models namely the Information System Success Model (ISSM) and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Dimensions in the ISSM as well as in the UTAUT were used to investigate the perceptions from the logistics students pertaining to the LSA Facebook®. Data was gathered through questionnaires from 183 logistics students. Respondents provided their answers by perceiving the user satisfaction, system quality and information quality towards the behavioral intention to use the LSA Facebook®. Results indicated that system quality and user satisfaction are positively associated with the behavioral intention but not information quality. The standardized coefficients for user satisfaction was higher (β = .23) compared to system quality (β = .20) toward behavioral intention at p value <.001. The study implies that improving system quality and user satisfaction would yield high response from the users. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2013 Impact of Corporate Governance on Non-Performing Loans of Nigerian Deposit Money Banks This study examines the impact of Corporate Governance (CG) variables of Board Size (BS), Board Composition (BC), Composition of Audit Committee (CAC) and Power Separation (PS) on Non-performing Loans of Nigerian Deposit Money Banks; with a view to finding out whether these CG variable can be useful in curtailing the incidence of non-performing loans that have bedeviled Nigerian Money Deposit Banks. Secondary data was used from fourteen (14) quoted banks on Nigerian Stock Exchange from 2005-2011. Using multivariate regression analysis, the study finds that corporate governance variables of BS, BC, CAC and PS have no significant impact on non-performing loans of Nigerian Deposit Money Banks. Hence, the study concludes that BS, BC, CAC and PS cannot be relied upon to check the rising figure of non-performing loans of Nigerian Deposit Money Banks. Therefore, we recommend that the oversight and monitoring functions of Central Bank of Nigeria should be strengthened to ensure adherence to rules and principles guiding the approval and monitoring of loans and advances. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2013 Profitability of Applying Simple Moving Average Trading Rules for the Vietnamese Stock Market This paper considers whether the moving average rules can forecast stock price movements and outperform a simple buy-and-hold strategy over the period from July 2000 to March 2011 on Vietnamese data. We concluded that the technical trading rules examined have strongly predictive ability in term of Vietnamese data. The rules have greater forecasting power for Vietnamese than those for some other Asian markets. Using all the VMA rules and averaging the results yields annualized profit of 39.05% before trading cost, compared to 37.29% in Thailand and 29.2% in some other emerging Asian markets. The profitability of short-term technical trading rules is better than that of longer-term ones. We realize that the (1,10,0) rule, (1,20,0) rule, and (1,50,0) rule are determined to be very effective in Vietnamese stock market because they allow investors to make a large excess returns before trading cost. Specially, unlike almost prior studies for other emerging markets, we prove that the technical trading rules are profitable, even after adjusting for trading costs. However, they are not effective to create access returns for investors in the Vietnamese market after reducing trading costs. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2013 Public Sector Restructuring and Governance in Nigeria: Perspectives, Processes and Challenges The paper “public sector restructuring and governance in Nigeria: perspectives, processes and challenges” draws our attention to the issues affecting the smooth implementation of restructuring efforts in Nigeria. The objectives of this paper are to examine the public sector restructures in recent times, identify the factors affecting the implementation of public sector restructures and to determine the processes of public sector restructuring in Nigeria. Survey method was adopted to elicit data for this study. Meanwhile, the paper revealed, among other things that bad leadership significantly affected the implementation of the structure programmes in Nigeria’s public sector. The paper recommends inter alia; that initiators of restructuring should understand the relationship between public sector restructuring and organizational culture, build consensus on restructure agenda between the political actors, drivers of restructure and the bureaucracy regarding the scope, strategy and implementation modalities of the restructure process, strengthen the implementing and coordinating mechanisms for restructure and strengthen central agencies crucial to change. Implication of this finding for government officials is that it is only full implementation of public sector restructures that can bring about the attainment of greater efficiency, productivity and consequently lead to socio-economic transformation. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2013 The Impact of Environmental Cost on Corporate Performance: A Study of Oil Companies in Niger Delta States of Nigeria The study examined the impact of environmental cost on corporate performance in oil companies in the Niger Delta States of Nigeria. The field survey methodology was utilized involving a selected sample of twelve oil companies. The multiple regression analysis was explored to test the hypothesis. An investigation was undertaken into the possible relationship between corporate performance and three selected indicators of sustainable business practices: Community Development Cost (CDC), Waste Management Cost (WMC) and Employee Health and Safety Cost (EHSC). The study revealed that sustainable business practices and corporate performance is significantly related. And sustainability may be a possible tool for corporate conflict resolution as evidenced in the reduction of fines, penalties and compensations paid to host communities of oil companies. Therefore, the researchers recommended that the management of oil companies in the Niger Delta States of Nigeria develop a well articulated environmental costing system in order to guarantee a conflict free corporate atmosphere needed by managers and workers for maximum productivity and eventually improve corporate performance. Volume 2, Issue 2, 2013 Accounting Information and Stock Price Reaction of Listed Companies — Empirical Evidence from 60 Listed Companies in Shanghai Stock Exchange With the development of China’s capital market, the function and impact of Chinese listed companies has been more and more significant, especially the accounting information of the listed companies has an important effect on the quoted companies’ stock price and investors’ behavior in the market. The research of this paper empirically analyzes the relationship between accounting information and stock price with a few accounting information indexes. The results, based on 60 listed companies in Shanghai Stock Exchange for 2011, reveal: (1) positive relationship exists between accounting information and stock price, but the significant degree varies; (2) earnings per share and return on equity have the most significant correlation. Volume 2, Issue 2, 2013 Gender Parity and Youth Employment in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions: A Study of Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria In recent times, gender issues have continued to be at the centre stage of every political discourse in many regional, national and international fora. Although much has been written on gender as an academic discipline, gender parity and youth employment in Nigerian tertiary institutions is yet to be given the desired attention. Thus, women employment cannot be ignored even when employment pattern in Africa still favours men more than women. This paper investigates gender parity and youth employment in Nigerian tertiary institutions with particular focus on recruitment of young men and women into academic positions in Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi. To achieve the purpose of the study, a sample of 325 academic staff was selected for the research. The study tested a hypothesis of no relationship between gender parity and youth employment in Nigerian tertiary institutions using a statistical tool called t- test statistic with the help of statistical software known as SPSS version 16.0. The t-statistic analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between gender parity and youth employment among academic staff of Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi since tcal (87:41)> ttab (2:31) at 5% critical level. It concluded that there is gender imbalance in the employment of academic staff as male youth are more in employment than female youth in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The paper recommends among others the need for government to enshrine into law gender equality in terms of employment opportunities for all qualified citizens in Nigeria. Volume 2, Issue 2, 2013 Impact of Globalisation on Corporate Governance in Developing Economies: A Theoretical Approach The key elements in globalization are the interconnection of sovereign nations through trade and capital flows, harmonization of the economic rules, creation of structural support and facilitate interconnection and the development of a global market, which allow flow of foreign investment, both direct and portfolio. To assure these corporate financiers that their investment would be secured, there is need for good corporate governance, which involves a network of relationships between corporate managers, directors and the stakeholders. The objective of this paper is to find out how globalization has been able to influence corporate governance practices in developing economies. Findings indicate that corporate governance in most developing economies has been influenced by globalization, which has provided an international benchmark for policy makers on issue of corporate governance. Based on the findings, recommendations were made on how to improve corporate governance in developing countries, especially Nigeria. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2013 Conveying the Message: Building Relationships in a Varied Team It is of great importance for the management environment to acknowledge and understand networking practices and diversity issues. To ensure effective teamwork and a stable working environment networking needs to be enhanced and supported. To understand networking in a culturally diverse environment the networking practices were investigated at a Gauteng mine. Data was collected from Kusasalethu mine employees, one of the mines of the third largest Gold producer in South Africa. The respondents were chosen by making use of probability, systematic proportionate stratified sampling. A total of 289 questionnaires were completed which constituted a 100% response rate. One difference identified in the findings indicated that Caucasian Baby Boomers make use of telephones when networking more often than African Generation X'ers. In view of the results it is recommended, among other things, that preferences with regard to network mediums be noted, as such awareness may lead to more effective networking / communication within businesses. Effective communication may lead to a more stable and more cohesive working environment. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2013 Performance of Crude Palm Oil and Crude Palm Kernel Oil Futures in Malaysian Derivatives Market This study investigates the performance of two contracts traded that is Futures Crude Palm Oil (hereafter refers as FCPO) and Crude Palm Kernel Oil futures (hereafter refers as FPKO) in Malaysian derivatives market. The effects of contract’s settlement, volume and open interest was analyzed towards open price (hereafter refers as price) for both contract traded. Secondary data is used, which are gathered from Bloomberg, Bursa Malaysia for N=1,296 over the period between 2006 and 2010. Overall the result revealed by regression and independent T-test shows that; the dependent variables and independent variables have a strong relationship, and the prices and volume of trading for FCPO is performed better and the most preferable contract compared to the FPKO contracts traded in Bursa Malaysia. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2013 Assessment of Business Development Strategies in the Nigerian Construction Industry Business continuity is bravery for the survival of any business. This paper examines the business development strategies in the Nigerian construction with a view to enhance the sustainability of firms of professionals and contracting organizations in the industry. Set of a well structured questionnaire was distributed to professionals in both the consulting and contracting organizations in Abuja, the Nigeria federal capital territory. Data collected were analysed using mean score to rank the responses of the professionals on the usage and level of effectiveness of business strategies and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to test the level of significance of strategies identified by this study. The study established that the widely used strategies by the professionals for business development in Nigeria included market penetration and organization/internal development. Moreover, the most effective strategies was organization/internal development followed by products/services branding and packaging, financial partnership, market penetration and merger and acquisition. The most significant strategies was market penetration followed by products/services branding and packaging, people/staff/personnel development, financial partnership, diversification and strategies alliance which were equally ranked high. The study concluded that market penetration, firm’s internal development, financial partnership, diversification and strategic alliance are significant and essential strategies for firms of professionals and organizations to survive in the Nigeria competitive construction markets. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2013 An Evaluation of Technology Innovation on the Performance of Indigenous Textile Weaving Firms in Southwestern Nigeria The study evaluated the impact of technology innovation on the performance of indigenous textile weaving firms in south-western Nigeria. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire administered on indigenous weavers in the study area. Results of correlation analysis showed the relationship between business performance and source of raw material (r=0.17, t=2.84, p<0.01); product innovations (r=0.10, t=1.65, p<0.05); investment in technology innovations (r=0.19, t=3.25, p<0.01); business advisory services (r=0.11; t=1.74, p<0.05); reduction of tax (r=0.11; t=1.73, p<0.05), export incentives (r=0.13; t=2.09, p<0.01); and total capital investment (r=0.21; t=3.55, p<0.01). Factors with negative effect are cost of R&D (r=-0.19; t=3.24, p<0.01); threats by competitors (r=-0.18; t=3.06, p<0.01) and production of quality products (r=-0.09; t=1.64, p<0.05). Regression analysis and its impact on business performance were local marketing, (β=17.95, z=11.18, p<0.01); national marketing, (β=18.35, z=1.64, p<0.01); product innovations, (β=3.17, z=3.03, p<0.01); total capital invested, (β=2.68, z=10.19, p<0.01) and experience in business, (β=2.66, z=2.96, p<0.01). Factors with negative effect were payment of tax, (β=-17.46, z=-21.31, p<0.01); regional marketing, (β=-17.38, z=-18.08, p<0.01); local competition, (β=-16.53, z=-9.02, p<0.01). The study concluded that sale of products in the domestic market; product innovations; total capital invested and years of experience in business were the factors responsible for the resilience and sustenance of indigenous textile weaving firms. However, factors such as payment of tax, sale of products in regional market, local competition, trade liberalization and cost of R&D are the major constraints in the performance of firms in the industry. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012 Alignment of Business and IT and Its Association with Business Performance: The Case of Iranian Firms In recent years strategic alignment has become a hot topic and researchers have put strong effort to develop models and instruments in order to measure alignment. The significance and importance of the aligning business with information technology and its effects on business performance is clearly embedded in the existent literature. Unfortunately, very few works have been done among Iranian firms and competition environment of Iran. These researches are limited to some case studies in Iranian companies. So, this paper opens the gate on this topic by investigating the effects of strategic alignment of business and information technology on business performance in Iranian large companies, applying the famous model introduced by Chan et al.. The primary data collected from questionnaire collected from a long list of companies in Tehran Stock Exchange and were analyzed through using SPSS software. The results indicate that strategic alignment of IT and business strategy has a positive and significant effect on business performance and it is stronger than the effect of both business and IS strategic orientation. Finally, some suggestion for Iranian companies and also future researches are presented. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012 Expatriate Job Performance and Adjustment: Role of Individual and Organizational Factors The expatriate literature has highlighted many individual and organizational factors which effect expatriate job performance and adjustment but the role of some individual and organizational factors is still not clear and/or has been ignored by past researchers. For example, the role of direct and indirect support has not been well conceptualized in past studies. In addition, only a few studies have explained the importance of self-efficacy, cultural sensitivity and social networking in the related expatriate literature. Furthermore, the role of previous international experience has conflicting results in past research. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical grounding and highlight the importance of those individual and organizational factors which have been ignored by past researchers. In this regard, researchers have reviewed journals/articles from different databases, books, and magazines. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework based on the gaps in the literature and suggests propositions. The proposed conceptual framework provides a theoretical grounding for individual and organizational factors that includes individual factors (self-efficacy, previous international experience, cultural sensitivity, and social network) and organizational factors (direct and indirect support). This paper suggests that expatriate adjustment (work, general, and interaction adjustment) mediates the relationship between individual factors (self-efficacy, previous international experience, cultural sensitivity, and social network), organizational factors (direct and indirect support), and expatriate job performance (rated by peer and supervisor). The proposed framework is developed based on past theoretical and empirical studies in order to cover the gap and contribute to the body of knowledge in the field of the literature. Based on the proposed framework, this paper invites researchers to empirically test the suggested propositions in order to further strengthen and develop understanding about individual and organizational factors as predictors of expatriate adjustment and job performance. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012 Increasing the Productivity of Arab SMEs through Knowledge Management Today knowledge is considered to be the primary resource of competitive advantage. This paper analyzed and accessed the status of KM in SMEs in Arab countries. It also examined the factors that influence the adoption of KM for SMEs in the region. In this paper; a comprehensive literature study, a Knowledge Management’s personalization approach were undertaken to set a KM Personalization Framework. Many organizations have profited from KM because they recognize the importance of the KM in business growth and development. However the result of this paper found SMEs, in Arab countries have not realized this importance and still are vulnerable. The study takes this factor into consideration and proposed an adoption approach specific to SMEs in region countries. The study contributes on KM and SMEs literature in both Arab and developing countries and is one of the few studies conducted in the specific region countries. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012 Insight of Corporate Governance Theories The progression of theories or models of corporate governance, it is one of the new dimensions taken in a very crux of social ethics that is minimal and profit making took center stage. In this competitive world, companies are trying to inculcate the wisdom of good governance into their corporate organization. With the massive outpouring of capitalism, companies became stronger while governments around the globe had to accede to its influences and supremacy. However, this paper is a review of literature on the variety of theories in corporate governance. The ultimate theories in corporate governance started with the agency theory, extended into stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolved to resource dependency theory, political theory, legitimacy theory and social contract theory. However, these theories discourse the cause and consequence of variables, such as the formation of board structure, audit committee, independent non-executive directors and the duties of upper management and their organizational and social responsibilities rather than its regulatory structures. Similarly, it is proposed that a mixture of various theories is best to describe an effective and efficient good governance practice rather than hypothesizing corporate governance based on a sole theory. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012