Journal of Tourism and Recreation Journal of Tourism and Recreation (JoTR) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed and open-access journal published by Science and Education Centre of North America. It reports on management, marketing, economics, innovations, trends, and developments in the fields of tourism, recreation, leisure, and hospitality. Cautionary Note on Computing Site-Specific Recreational Demand Elasticities and Welfare Estimates This cautionary note achieves three important integrative goals. First is justifying the need for applied agricultural and resource economists to increasingly use flexible modeling techniques, such as the Box-Cox power family of transformations model, for reducing specification bias in recreational demand estimation. Second is demonstrating that findings from fitting inflexible functional form models tend to generate incorrect public policies on consumer welfare estimates. Third is establishing the importance of evaluating the demand elasticity estimates not only at the mean data values but also at the different data points, including at extreme data values, in the observed data space. Volume 2, Issue 2, 2015 Brand Equity and Its Elements: Case of the Lake Balaton (Hungary) The article provides a valuable insight into understanding brand equity and its elements that endows the destination with a unique character. Using empirical data, the study seeks to identify potential brand equity items of a destination type, namely waterside area (Lake Balaton, Hungary). The innovative approach of the research is its holistic view, because it integrates the customer-based brand equity with stakeholders’ (including media and tourism professionals) perceptions. This enables a complex understanding of the researched topic, the conclusions are summarized in the Five-Stage Brand Pyramid model. The results highlight four main dimension of the brand equity: (1) the fundamental role of destination specific (waterside in this case) attributes, (2) the country of origin elements (emotional and rational benefits of domestic travel in this case), (3) the tourism products/activities, and (4) the emotional dimension. Furthermore, the research also identifies some important gap between demand and supply side. The research resulted important theoretical (structure of brand equity, need for a complex methodology) and practical (strong emotional perceptions of consumers, comprehensive analysis of tourism products/activities) implications that can be scope of further researches. Volume 2, Issue 2, 2015 Technology Adoption and the Accountability Factor: A Case for the Re-Intermediation of Travel Agencies in Small Island Developing States This paper highlights the importance of trust and accountability to Caribbean consumers of online travel products. It reveals a critical element, which has been largely ignored in the literature related to travel consumer online purchasing decisions. Previous research on factors that influence consumer decisions about online travel purchase tended to focus on so called universal factors such as speed, convenience and cost, to name a few, while those that promote more traditional offline purchasing surround expertise, social interaction, privacy and security. While these cannot be overlooked, this work highlights that an important factor in the decision making process is the ability to hold persons accountable and depend on organizations to see their booking through to a successful end. This is particularly heightened if and when errors in bookings are made. A mixed-methods approach was used in this paper. The process began with 31 in-depth interviews with the Chief Executive Officers of all owner-managed travel agencies in Jamaica. Given that the Caribbean countries bear some similarities, a cross-national survey totaling 302 individuals was conducted between Jamaican and the Bahamas over a three (3) week period. The findings not only reveal that accountability is important to consumers in relationship-oriented societies such as Jamaica and the Bahamas, but that this concept must be explored for other countries and contexts, particularly for those interested in maintaining the buoyancy of travel agencies in a technologically advanced world. Volume 2, Issue 2, 2015 Which Factors Affect Passengers' Intention to Use the Automated Immigration Clearance System (e-Gate)? This study discusses the factors that affect passengers’ intent to use automated immigration clearance system (e-gate) and the corresponding causal relationship. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, we constructed a model by considering the need for personal interaction and perceived risk, designed questionnaires by focus group discussions and observed and compared passengers’ behaviour by Structural Equation Modeling and Hierarchical Regression to identify several important issues. Results indicated that (1) for experienced users, use attitude and perceived ease of use are the key factors with positive effects on use intention; (2) for inexperienced users, the need for personal interaction negatively influences use intention, and perceived usefulness has little effect on use intention; and (3) ‘experience’ has a significant main effect and moderator effect on the influences of personal interaction and perceived risk on use intention. These results suggest the following important implications: enhanced experience, inductive promotional strategies, positive feedback loop, provide options for immigration examination stamps, and reach a balance between control and facilitation. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2015 Tourism Development in a New Democracy: Residents' Perceptions of Community-based Tourism in Mawlamyine, Myanmar The concept of community-based tourism (CBT) is not new, and definitions of CBT have proliferated in the years since Murphy (1985) expounded on the community involvement approach in tourism development. This study examined residents’ perceptions of CBT in Mawlamyine as a conduit for sustainable tourism amidst a climate of rapid economic and social change. Using a grounded theory approach, analysis of data collected from 14 semi-structured interviews with local residents and foreign tourists revealed that Mawlamyine’s tourism potential lies in its untouched natural resources and cultural heritage, yet is hindered by a lack of essential infrastructure and services. The city’s proximity to Mount Kyaitko, a popular tourist site, and Yangon, a major transit hub, has the potential to create strong market access to CBT projects. However, local residents cite the obscure governmental policies for obtaining permission to begin a CBT project as a major barrier. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2015 A Study on the Relationship between Work-Family Conflicts and the Job Satisfaction of Tour Leaders Many tour leaders have to work and bear family responsibilities at the same time. With limited time and effort, a question of concern is whether they have work-family conflict. Therefore, this study aims to explore the relationships between work-family conflict and the job satisfaction of tour leaders. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to collect empirical data from tour leaders, and 233 valid questionnaires were collected. The study results indicate that when tour leaders’ work interferes with their family life, it has no impact on their job satisfaction. On the contrary, when the tour leaders’ family life interferes with their work, it has a negative impact on their job satisfaction. Finally, the study discusses managerial implications and research limitations, and proposes suggestions for future studies. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2015 Residents' Attitudes toward International Tourism: A Case of Iran The main objective of this research was to investigate Iranian attitudes toward the impact of foreign tourism on the economic, social/cultural, environmental, and the country’s religion. The results of the survey questionnaire to 836 Iranians in major tourism cities revealed that, in general, Iranians view foreign tourism as having a positive influence economically, social/culturally, and environmentally. On the impact of foreign tourism on the country’s religion, residents were mostly neutral, indicating ambivalence whether the impact would be positive or negative. Implications of the findings for the country’s economic development strategies are discussed. Volume 1, Issue 2, 2014 A Comparative Analysis of Consumers' Attitude and Behavior toward Green Practices The present study suggests that national culture will influence consumer attitude and behavior; however, research documenting differences in consumer culture in Taiwan and China is lacking. This study analyzes the hotel industry of Taiwan and China and explores the relationships between environmental attitudes, environmental responsive behavior and the willingness to stay at environmentally friendly hotels. In addition, it also discusses whether there are differences between consumers from Taiwan and China. From the responses to a questionnaire from 600 and 656 hotel guests in Taiwan and China, respectively, it was determined that environmental attitudes affected the environmental responsive behavior and willingness to stay at environmentally friendly hotels and that environmental responsive behavior only affected Taiwanese consumers’ willingness to stay at environmentally friendly hotels. The study also found significant differences in the environmental attitudes, environmental responsive behavior and willingness to stay at environmentally friendly hotels of consumers in Taiwan and China. Volume 1, Issue 2, 2014 Identifying Gender Differences in Destination Decision Making Gender differences are critical in consumer behavior theory. As the purchase risks, the intangibility and perishability of travel products exceed those of other products, the overseas travel decision-making behavior differs from general consumer decision-making fundamentally. This study clarifies whether the thesis of gender differences offers an appropriate explanation of tourist hesitation and the justifiability of destination decisions. Based on multiple regression analysis of data from 443 tourists at Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport, gender differences did not significantly influence on tourist hesitation and the justifiability of destination decisions after controlling other possible influences. Comprehensive management implications for travel agents are discussed. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014 Greek Consumers' Expenditure on Recreation Activities during Difficult Times This paper uses a dataset of 800 consumers in Athens for the time period 2010-2011 in order to examine the impact of socio-economic and psychological parameters on Greek consumers’ expenditure on recreation activities. Several ordinary least squares techniques are applied to capture the possible non-linearities relationship between covariates and criterion variable. Results reveal strong associations between demographic, socioeconomic and psychological parameters and consumers’ attitude in recreation expenditures experimentation. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014 French and German Tourism in the Mediterranean - A Market Share Analysis Tourism is an important economic sector for Mediterranean countries, and these compete for market share. In our study we look at the evaluation of market shares amongst a group of seven Mediterranean countries for both German and French tourists. Our data shows that these shares have changed significantly over the period 1963-2009. We utilise the Almost Ideal Demand System, a model grounded in economic theory, to understand what has driven these changes. The estimated own-price elasticities indicate the sensitivity of demand to price increases in each country, while cross-price elasticities shed light on the relative complementarity and substitutability of the holiday destinations. We find that while Spain was relatively unaffected by the development of the tourism market in countries such as Cyprus, Malta and Turkey, Italy lost significant market share, in part due to a relative loss of competitiveness. An innovation of this study is an assessment of the stability of the elasticity estimates over the sample. In line with other studies in this area, we highlight that the results of this study can serve as useful information for policymakers in the formulation of policies on tourism market development. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014 Testing the Validity and Reliability of the Levels of Self-Concept Scale in the Hospitality Industry Self-concept is a powerful determinant of people attitudes and behaviors, and leaders can profoundly influence subordinates’ self-concept, and furthermore, their behaviors and other social processes. As an important theory to management, studies on testing the validity and reliability of the scale of self-concept were limited. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of an existing popular used instrument of self-concept, which is named LSCS in the context of Chinese culture. An empirical survey was conducted in China’s hotel industry, and 585 valid responses were collected. Results showed that the reliability and discriminant validity of LSCS were good, while convergent validity was not ideal. Suggestions on how to improving the convergent validity of LSCS was given in the end. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014 Using Cultural Resources in Host Communities and the Environs to Enhance the Natural Resources Attractiveness of Ecotourism Development in Omo Biosphere Reserve (OBR), Nigeria The study was undertaken to evaluate the cultural resources in Omo Biosphere Reserve (OBR) host communities and its environs that can enhance the attractiveness of ecotourism development which can ultimately lead to the sustainable development of the area. OBR is in waterside area of Ogun State, Nigeria. It is a UNESCO designated Man and Biosphere (MAB) site. OBR natural resources has been under threat of overexploitation in the last few decades and hence the need to sustainably conserve and protect these resources using ecotourism. Fauna direct sighting particularly the large mammals like the forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus) and others have been rare although their presence have been established. Interview and direct observation methods were used to collect primary data. Data collected were analysed and presented in tables. The result showed that there were significant festivals in OBR environs that can attract visitors to OBR. The study identified the incorporation of festivals in the OBR as added attractiveness for the natural resources in OBR in its ecotourism development. Development of ecotourism will not only conserve the endangered fauna and flora species of Omo Biosphere Reserve but will also provide additional income and job opportunities for the communities and will equally ensure peaceful co-existence of the people. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014