Plant Science International Plant Science International (PSI) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed and open-access journal published by Science and Education Centre of North America. PSI scopes cover all areas of experimental plant sciences, including such topics as morphology, taxonomy, ecology, ethnobotany, physiology, pathology, genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, developmental biology, biochemistry, systems biology, enzymology, plant breeding and plant cell, tissue and organ culture. Micropropagation of Yeheb from Shoot Tip: An Endangered Multipurpose Shrub The study focuses on in vitro propagation of an endangered species of C. edulis. In vitro propagation has advantages to address low seed viability and over exploitation problems. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop micropropagation method from shoot tip explant. To do so, seeds were de-coated and disinfected using 5% (v/v) Clorox and cultured on growth regulators-free solid MS medium. Shoots were initiated on MS medium containing BAP alone or in combination with IBA. Then, initiated shoots were multiplied on solid MS medium supplemented with various concentration and combinations of BAP and TDZ alone and in combination with IBA or NAA respectively. Shootlets were cultured on full, half and one-third strength MS medium containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg/l IBA and NAA for root induction. As a preliminary test for rooting, B5 and WPM media, both supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/l IBA, were used. Shootlets were cultured on full strength MS medium containing higher concentration of 3.0 and 5.0 mg/l IBA and 1.0 g/l activated charcoal for four days and then transferred into growth regulators-free MS medium for a month for root induction as preliminary test. The highest percentage of shoot induction (70.8%) was obtained on medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP in combination with 0.01 mg/l IBA. The highest number of shoots (4.2 ± 0.85) produced per explant was achieved on MS multiplication medium containing 2.0 mg/l BAP. None of the shoots induced roots in any of different MS salt strengths and other media. As conclusion, this is the first try of micropropagation and the existing result is valuable for cryopreservation of this endangered plant. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2015 Evaluation of Different Maturity Groups of Soybean (Glycine Max L. Merrill) Grown Sole and Intercropped with Maize (Zea Mays L.) for Yield and Yield Components at Bako, Ethiopia Different maturity of soybean genotypes interact differently either in sole or intercropping system. Therefore, screening of the genotypes under various environment is paramount important for variety recommendation. The experiment was conducted to evaluate different soybean genotypes in intercropping and sole cropping systems. Fifteen genotypes were evaluated in using randomized complete block design with three replications. The result revealed nodule number and plant height was significantly affected by genotypes variation in both systems. A total of 32-73% reduction in nodule number was recorded when compared with soles due to shading of maize. However, late and early types had higher number of nodules as opposed to medium type. Late type was generally taller than early and medium ones. Significant differences in grain yield were also recorded in both systems. But maize shading effect considerably reduced the yield though population difference is also another factor. Promoveria (3826 kg ha-1), IAW-13-1(3747 kg ha-1) and Pr-145-2-1 (3620 kg ha-1) genotypes resulted the highest grain yield and productivity, while the lowest yield was obtained from Pr-145-2 (2144 kg ha-1) when grown in soles. However, IAW-13-1 (690 kg ha-1) and AGX-129-2 (672 kg ha-1) produced the highest grain yield in intercropping systems. Comparing each maturity groups, significant variation both in nodule number and grain yield was also recorded. As general, most of the tested genotypes that were performed well in intercropping were not so far released. AGS-129-2 genotype was released recently in sole cropping systems, but now it is also well performed in intercropping systems. For unreleased pipelines it is important to consider as variety verification trial to confidently recommend for the end users. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014 Orchid Conservation in Singapore under Natural Conditions: Responses of Grammatophyllum Speciosum to Growth Irradiances Grammatophyllum speciosum orchid plants were grown both on the ground and on trees under high light (HL) and low light (LL) conditions in Pasir Ris Park, Singapore. This paper studied photosynthetic energy utilization investigated by chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments; plant water status measured by leaf relative water content (RWC) and stomatal conductance (gs). All plants had midday leaf RWC greater than 80%, indicating no severe water deficit occurred in any plants. Except for plants grown on trees under LL, midday depression of Fv/Fm ratios occurred in all other plants, indicating dynamic photoinhibiton. There was no chronic photoinhibition in any plants as Fv/Fm ratios recovered to healthy level at early morning. Grown on the ground under HL, G. speciosum had higher photochemical quantum yield (ΔF/Fm’), greater electron transport rate (ETR) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), indicating their higher efficiency in utilization and dissipation excess energy. Plants grown on the ground under HL had lower Chl and Chl/Car ratio, but higher content of carotenoids and Chl a/b ratio compared to the other plants, implying their acclimation to HL conditions. The highest gs was recorded at 1000 h, suggesting the avoidance of drought stress by widely opening stomata only for a short period of time in the early morning. Higher gs was related to higher leaf temperature, indicating that the role of gs in moderating leaf temperature. Understanding the effects of growth irradiance on photosynthesis of G. speciosum would be an important step towards a sustainable conservation of native orchids in Singapore. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014 Effect of TDZ on Direct Shoot Regeneration from Whole Male Inflorescence of Four Diploid Banana Cultivars from South India Male inflorescence has great potential to be used as explants for rapid micropropagation of Musa species. In this work whole inflorescence was used as the explant for the propagation. The male flower of four diploid banana cultivars namely Musa acuminata cv. Matti and M. acuminata cv. Sannachenkadali, M. acuminata cv. Chingan and Musa acuminata cv. Njalipoovan (2n= 22) belonging to diploid genome types (AA and AB) were selected for the present study. These diploid tolerant cultivars grown in south Indian states are in great demand because of their fruit quality and consumer preference. Direct shoot regeneration was achieved from whole male inflorescence which is inoculated in MS medium supplemented with varying concentrations of BA, TDZ and KIN. All the four cultivars produced the maximum number of shoots in the presence of varying concentrations of TDZ (0.45µM -13.5 µM) irrespective of their genotypes. Male inflorescence reduces the rate of contamination compared to suckers and produces a more number of shoots in culture conditions. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014 Identification of Wild Grass as Remediator Plant on Artisanal Gold Mine Tailing Tailings, waste processing from gold ore separation (amalgamation), is generally disposed of on agricultural land, so the land became polluted and unproductive. Remediation of contaminated land can use wild plants as a potential agent of phytoremediation. Surrounding the mine area are found various kinds of wild plants that grow well and potentially as remediator plants. This study aimed to obtain the kinds of plants that grow around the gold mining activities of the people and has the potential as a crop Remediator. The study was conducted in the areas surrounding the gold mine of the people in Pesanggaran, Banyuwangi District East Java Province. Exploration carried out using wild plants transect method. Plants that had the highest IIV value has the life skills and high adaptability. Soil analysis results in tailings disposal site showed a low content of soil fertility, such as pH 7.7 to 7.9 (alkaline), C-organic (0.14%), N (0.13%), P (5.7 mg kg-1), K (0.11 me/100g), and CEC (13 me/100g). The content of heavy metals Hg and Pb were detected has exceeded the threshold value (NAV) is required, which is 251.2 mg kg-1 and 135.2 mg kg-1. The results showed that the people around the gold mine site, there are about 31 species of wild plants that have adapted, 6 species of plants which have potential as Remediator. ie Eleusine inica, Chromolaena odorata, Ageratum conyzoides, Amaranthus, spp., Sesbania grandiflora and Momordica charantia, with IIV 22.27%, respectively 22.02%, 15.20%, 14.57%, 13 , 97%, and 12.49%. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014 Effect of Air-Rest Treatment on Rice Malt To improve the malting qualities of rice grain, paddy rice (Jasmine 85) was air-rested for 2 to 8 h while in steep and malted for 12 days at 28 ± 1°C. Out-of-steep moisture content, germination energy, shoot length, and diastatic activity of the rice grains were evaluated to determine the efficiency of the air-rest treatment. Air-rested rice grains absorbed 0.5 to 5% moisture more than the untreated (control). Six-hour air-rested grains absorbed the highest moisture content of 36.6% after 48 h of steeping. The highest germination energy (93%) and diastatic activity (1002 U/g dry malt) were recorded in the 6-hour air-rested grains. Moreover, malts resulting from this treatment had their optimum diastatic activity (2086 U/g dry malt) on the 8th day after germination, occurring earlier than the control (2001 U/g dry malt) which peaked at the 10th day. Applying air-rest treatment during rice malting improves its hydrolytic potential. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014