Social Science Today Social Science Today (SST) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed and open-access journal published by Science and Education Centre of North America. SST strongly encourages interdisciplinary analysis of contemporary and historical social change around the world by offering an open academic platform for international scholars across the social sciences, including anthropology, cultural studies, economics, history, political science, law, sociology, psychology, management, geography, environmental sciences, education, arts, linguistics, philosophy, and natural sciences. SST also welcomes humanities-oriented articles that deal with changing in pertinent social issues or represent the impact of social transformations on the changing order of public and private life. The Decline in Organizational Transparency and the Loss of its Partner, Trust: A Restorative Agenda In recent decades businesses, private and public corporations, and financial organizations have undergone scrutiny of their integrity and financial dealings with their clients, leading to severe declines in their reputations and skepticism about their morality. This has led to calls for greater transparency in organizations. Transparency alone will not make an organization ethical but practicing transparency is necessary if institutions and organizations are to regain the trust of their clients. A typology is presented which shows the choices available in creating transparent behavior in organizations. This paper views trust as the key to building transparent organizations supported by leaders and an organizational culture that supports transparency. Leaders and the cultures they create are the building blocks to trust and engaging others to do business with one another. More organizations could benefit by adopting more transparency practices. Volume 4, Issue 1, 2018 The Effect of Product Quality on Net Trade in the Manufacturing Sector: Contrasts between Developed and Developing Countries This paper determines and compares the effects of product quality on the value of net trade in the manufacturing sector of developed and developing countries. By incorporating the intensity of consumers’ preferences for quality, we identify quality impacts on net trade. We estimate the quality effects for 25 developed countries and 17 developing countries from 1989 to 2010. We conclude that product quality is positively related to net trade, and developed countries experience a higher quality effect. The variation of GDP per capita and average number of product varieties in the manufacturing sector could explain the different quality effects across country types. Volume 3, Issue 1, 2016 On the Benefits and Costs of Healthcare and the Financing of a Single Payer System The theoretical analysis and empirical findings in this work, lead to conclusions and propositions relevant to all health care systems with universal health coverage. By quantifying the benefits and costs of healthcare in terms of life years, we show that a) universal coverage is an important factor in improving population health but it is not a sufficient condition - healthcare costs and the distribution of income are vital to health and cannot be understated, b) market outcomes, as in the U.S health care system, tend to disproportionally favor the rich and are not consistent with improving population health, and c) a single payer system has the ability to deliver healthcare efficiently, but it is not a panacea. We establish a fair rule generating process and the conditions for the proper financing of a single payer system. In conclusion, the theoretical analysis and statistical evidence show that any policy objective with any degree of fairness in the distribution of medical benefits will require, for the financing of single payer system, a progressive “health care” income tax. Volume 3, Issue 1, 2016 Spatial Model of U.S. Presidential Election in 2012 Using a survey from a nationally representative sample in the U.S., this paper applies a spatial model of election to 2012 U.S. Presidential election. Studying 2012 Presidential election allows us to examine the role of activists in U.S. elections, since this election is the first presidential election after the historical Citizens United decision by the U.S. Supreme Court, which resulted in the removal of the limits on campaign contribution. By estimating a set of multinomial logit models, we find that ideological distance between candidate and voters still plays a significant role in determining vote choice in the U.S. elections. However, the valence of a candidate in the 2012 election turns out to be not a statically significant predictor of vote choice. The finding suggests that the exogenous increase in campaign contribution has emphasized the role of ideological distance in voting behavior, while reducing the effect of valence. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2015 "I Would Not Do It:" Student Reaction to Facebook Wall Grief Posts Like most emotions, how and when to express grief is socially constructed; and, as such, can change over time. Social media sites like Facebook may be changing the cultural norms surrounding grief expression by making it more public and prolonged. However, little is known about how non-grieving Facebook “friends” perceive expressions of grief in locations such as general Facebook wall posts. This paper stems from a broader focus study exploring where college students “draw the line” and what they consider being inappropriate posts on Facebook. In five of seven focus groups conducted, students (n=32) mentioned some aspect of grieving on Facebook walls as inappropriate. Using open coding and a constant comparative methodology, findings from these five focus groups suggests that these college students exhibit “tolerated inappropriateness” regarding grief expressions on Facebook walls. Tolerated inappropriateness is the label for when students claim that Facebook is not where they would express grief (inappropriateness), but they also claim that they would not negatively judge those who do (tolerated). However, this “tolerated inappropriateness” only applies when posts did not exhibit “display drama,” using excessively dramatic wording, or “display excessiveness”, were highly repetitive. Both types of posts were seen as a call for attention among the living and were looked upon negatively. However, when confronted with these posts, students overwhelmingly ignore them, while still making negative judgments about the post or person. Using symbolic interactionist theory, implications of the lack of reaction for emerging norms of grief expression are explored. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2015 A Theory of Intrinsic Learning: Fundamental Concepts Learning methodologies that place the intrinsic knowledge and internal understanding of material at the center of instruction produce a more complete foundational and versatile understanding of subject matter than do traditional methods. Intrinsic learning is a universal approach to education that utilizes learning processes (the senses, perceptions, emotions, intellect, experiences, and aesthetics) all human beings have employed continually, at least to a degree, since birth. This methodology works to foster an understanding of our own intentional learning processes as well as to promote individual and collective harmony and well-being. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2015 Scientism and Social Engineering: Lessons Learned from the Collapse of Communism and the Western Response The collapse of communism was one of the momentous historical events of our time. Surely the experience with "scientific socialism" and communism during the 20¬th century provide major lessons for the future so that these mistakes will not be repeated. A useful analogy can even be drawn with the Renaissance as Europe emerged from the hegemony of the medieval Church. Yet I fear that some of the most important lessons about the problems of utopian social engineering have not been learned—as if the mistake in communism was using the sacred texts from the wrong church as opposed to the scientific blueprints based on modern economics (the texts of the right church). Future generations may end up repeating the mistakes based on the same flawed ideas dressed up in different clothing. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014 Evolutionary Narratives: A Cautionary Tale While accounts of human action may be strengthened by the addition of a biological component we should be careful not to replace “hard core social constructionism” with oversimplified evolutionary narratives in which human traits are “explained” as the product of natural selection. Narratives have inherent weaknesses as explanatory accounts and evolutionary narratives share these weaknesses. In addition there is no consensus amongst biologists on the target of natural selection and human natural history was anything but a gradual step-by-step process of progressive advancement. Work in the cognitive sciences on the nature and function of human cognitive architecture should be integrated into accounts of human social action. Such integration should be done not by reducing human behavior to its biological prerequisites but by conceives of human biology as the basis for the almost unlimited variety of meaningful interaction characteristic of human culture and social life. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014 The Interactionist Perspectives of George Herbert Mead and Harvey Sacks The perspectives of George Herbert Mead, as found in various texts developed from his lectures (edited and published posthumously by his students), and Harvey Sacks’ lectures (recorded and edited by Gail Jefferson) and writings on interaction, are examined to show the differences and occasional similarities between their points of view. Mead’s perspective is shown to be that of the analyst/theorist whereas Sacks‘ focus was on ongoing practical accomplishments by members of society. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014 The Incentives to Enhance Teachers' Teaching Profession: An Empirical Study in Hong Kong Primary Schools This purpose of this study is to investigate the incentives to enhance primary teachers’ teaching profession in Hong Kong. The survey technique was employed and 460 questionnaires were collected. The findings showed that ‘asking teachers to get certifiedand get CPD’, ‘financial incentives’, ‘teachers’ subsequent career progression’ ‘initial teacher training, ‘teachers on-the-job training and support’, and ‘sufficient time to teachers to prepare their knowledge and skills’were the most useful incentives to remain primary teachers in teaching profession. The findings also showed that ‘school resources’, ‘principal leadership’ and ‘tending to be employed “close to home” were the least useful incentives to remain primary teachers in teaching profession. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014 Righteously Truthfully Management in Counterbalance Organizations The righteously truthfully management is among the most frequently investigated leadership constructs in counterbalance organizations, and is argued to be the ideal leadership style by many scholars regardless of the cultural or situational contingencies. This paper describes the corporate-wide approach to righteously truthfully management at organizations. righteously truthfully management, referring to the internal systematic approach of the organization’s management and leadership to strive for truthfully performance excellence, and righteously truthfully policy referring to all those measures through which one creates and strengthens confidence and trust in outsiders, especially customers, towards the organization’s abilities and products. Naturally, righteously truthfully policy is a part of righteously truthfully management. The paper reviews the truthfully strategy implementation, strategic control, truthfully metrics, truthfully channels and performance measurement literature to develop a conceptual model and research propositions. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2014